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Adrianna Gunton

on 25 November 2013

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Prepares the ball for the Upward Ball Movement Phase
If the ball is not in the body's base of support, it will have to overcome torque instead of just air resistance
Basketball Jump Shot Phases
1. Stance Phase

Characteristics of Expert Performance
Video of Expert Performance
The ultimate goal of this skill is to have the ball land in the basketball hoop.

This skill is important in a game situation in order to shoot over opponents.

The basketball jump shot includes:
1. Stance Phase
2. Pre-Takeoff - centre of mass lowered
3. Ball Positioning - ball brought in close to body
4. Upward ball Movement - ball brought up to prepare for release
5. Jump Phase
6. Release Phase

2. Pre-Takeoff Phase
3. Ball Positioning Phase
5. Jump Phase
Prepares the player for the vertical jump
Determines balance
Affects the trajectory to the hoop
4. Upward ball Movement Phase
6. Release Phase
Ball must move upwards to ensure it reaches maximum height
Ensures ball is in proper position for optimal angle of release
During this phase
The player is squaring up to the hoop
The player is positioning themselves to shoot
During this Phase
The player generates force to execute the vertical jump
Forces are generated through the knees and hips
During this phase
The player is stabilizing the ball
During this phase
The player is moving the ball upwards to produce a force that will cause the vertical velocity component of the ball
1. Stance Phase
feet facing the hoop
feet parallel
shoulder-width apart
shoulders square to the hoop
slight bend in the knees

2. Pre-Takeoff Phase

optimal flexion at the hips and knees
knee bend should occur to an angle of approximately 45 degrees relative to standing; this ensures maximum force is generated which will increase height of the jump

During this phase
The player is producing the majority of the vertical velocity through the vertical jump
Decreases the distance of the ball to the hoop
Ensures optimal angle of release and ball trajectory
Allows the player to shoot over the opponent in a game situation
During this phase
The player is releasing the ball
The player is producing horizontal velocity on the ball through flexion of the hand at the wrist
The player must release the ball to complete the jump shot
Contributes horizontal velocity to the jump shot to produce the optimal arc
Deterministic Model
Video of Novice Performance
Error Detection and Correction
Shooting hand is turned inwards

Hyperextension of the back

Feet are not square to the hoop

Elbow is not 90 degrees

Pushing the ball forward too much

Body leaning too far forward, inefficient movement

Rotate hand to the right

Shift weight further into the toes

Point toes directly at the basket

Bring the shooting arm up further

Ensure Upward Ball Movement Phase begins with vertical velocity

Monitor body positioning
Characteristics of Expert Performance
3. Ball Positioning Phase
ball brought in close to body, so the player doesn't have to overcome a torque to bring the arms up during jump
shooting elbow 90 degrees from starting position
non-shooting hand acts as a ball stabilizer with fingers spread out ensuring maximum contact with the ball
4. Upward Ball Movement Phase
Characteristics of Expert Performance
5. Jump Phase
6. Release Phase
Modifiable Components
Mechanical Principles
Generated at the knees, hips, shoulder, elbow, wrist

Kinetic linking of forces between Pre-takeoff, Upward Ball Movement, Jump, and Release Phases

Determined by this kinetic linking
Impulse-Momentum Relationship
Utilizing this relationship in the Pre-takeoff Phase

Lowering the center of mass and generating a greater amount of force

Time is increased as the player bends at the knees

Determined by the forces generated and the time those forces act
Player uses both vertical and horizontal velocity to shoot the basketball
Vertical takeoff velocity of player
Applied during the Jump Phase
Both vertical and horizontal velocity of the ball
Applied during the Jump, Upward Ball Movement, and Release Phases
Determined by optimized impulse-momentum relationship
Ball Displacement
occurs at the same time as the jump
shooting arm flexes with the arm straight and above the head
arm should be approximately 45 degrees from the body, preparing for an angle of release of 45 degrees, the optimal angle for distance
non-shooting arm remains supporting the ball
shoulders always square to the hoop
weight shifts from heels to toes
legs transition from flexion to extension
legs should be completely straight
toes plantar flexed
release of the ball occurs at the peak height of the jump
should be full flexion at the wrist, called the "wrist flick"
ball should roll off the fingertips during wrist flexion causing backspin on the ball
fingers should remain strong
during release, the player exerts a force on the ball below the ball's centre of mass, this causes a torque such that the ball rotates backwards

ball is brought in close to body during ball positioning phase to ensure the player doesn't have to overcome a torque to bring the ball upwards
projectile motion

determined by the distance to the hoop, ball velocity, angle of release, air resistance, and acceleration due to gravity

distance to the hoop is minimized during the jump

influenced by forces generated by kinetic linking

ball displacement
initial ball velocity (horizontal and vertical components)
takeoff velocity of the player
momentum at takeoff
Forces at hips, knees, shoulders, elbows and wrists
Time forces produced
angle of release
height of jump

Non-Modifiable Components
Air resistance
Acceleration due to gravity
acceleration due to gravity is always -9.81 m/s2
air resistance cannot be modified by the player
-the six phases of the jump shot include stance, pre-takeoff, ball positioning, upward ball movement, jump and release

-key mechanical concepts are forces, impulse-momentum relationship, velocity, torque and ball displacement

-modifiable components include velocity, angle of release, forces exerted, time forces act, momentum, height of jump
Release Phase
Jump Phase
Stance Phase
Full transcript