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Anthro Project

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Sundeep Nijjar

on 15 January 2013

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Transcript of Anthro Project

Abraham Maslow "If you plan on being anything less than you are capable of being, you will probably be unhappy for the rest of your life." - Abraham Maslow Abraham Maslow was born on the 1908, 1st of April, and raised in Brooklyn Newyork. Maslow was the oldest of seven children and was classed as "mentally unstable". His parents were first generation Jewish immigrants from Russia who had stressed education as an invaluable resource. It was a tough time for Maslow, as he experienced anti-semitism from his teachers and from other children around the neighborhood. He had various encounters with anti-semitic gangs who would chase and throw rocks at him. Maslow had turned these problems into motivation, using it as a fuel for success, and achievement. Maslow and others at the time with his background were in the struggle to overcome such acts of racism and ethnic prejudice in the attempt to establish an idealistic world based on widespread education and monetary justice. Maslow bounced from college to college. He had went to the City College of Newyork, Cornell, and eventually finishing his education at the University of Wisconsin Maslow then went on to be a psychology professor at Benders university, Brooklyn Collany for research purposes, and Columbia University. Most psychologists before him had been concerned with the abnormal and the ill. He urged people to acknowledge their basic needs before addressing higher needs and ultimately self-actualization. He wanted to know what constituted positive mental health. Humanistic psychology gave rise to several different therapies, all guided by the idea that people possess the inner resources for growth and healing and that the point of therapy is to help remove obstacles to individuals' achieving them. The most famous of these was client-centered therapy developed by Carl Rogers. Maslow founded the Journal of Humanistic Psychology with Tony Sutich (was a transpersonal psychology). The basic principles behind humanistic psychology are simple: 1. Someone's present functioning is their most significant aspect. As a result humanists emphasize the here and now instead of examining the past or attempting to predict the future. 2. To be mentally healthy, individuals must take personal responsibility for their actions, regardless of whether the actions are positive or negative. 3. Each person, simply by being, is inherently worthy. While any given action may be negative, these actions do not cancel out the value of a person. 4. The ultimate goal of living is to attain personal growth and understanding. Only through constant self-improvement and self-understanding can an individual ever be truly happy.[ Humanistic psychology theory suits people who see the positive side of humanity and believe in free will. This theory clearly contrasts with Freud's theory of biological determinism. Another significant strength is that humanistic psychology theory is compatible with other schools of thought. Maslow's Hierarchy is also applicable to other topics, such as finance, economics, or even in history or criminology. Maslow's work has enjoyed a revival of interest and influence among leaders of the positive psychology movement. This movement focuses only on a higher human nature. Positive psychology spends its research looking at the positive side of things and how they go right rather than the pessimistic side. Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a theory in psychology proposed by Abraham Maslow in his 1943 paper "A Theory of Human Motivation". Maslow subsequently extended the idea to include his observations of humans' innate curiosity. His theories parallel many other theories of human developmental psychology, some of which focus on describing the stages of growth in humans. Maslow used the terms Physiological, Safety, Belongingness and Love, Esteem, and Self-Actualization needs to describe the pattern of human motivation. Maslow had turned these problems into motivation, using it as a fuel for sucess. Maslow's great strength lies in his concern for the areas of human functioning that most other theorists have almost completely ignored. He is one of the few psychologists who have seriously investigated the positive dimensions of human experience.
His major contributions might be summarized in the following two central ideas:
1. Human beings have an innate tendency to move toward higher levels of health, creativity, insight, and self-fulfillment.
2. Business efficiency and personal growth are not incompatible. In fact, the process of self-actualization brings each individual to greater efficiency, creativity, and productivity Maslow's greatest value is as a psychological theorist who has stressed the positive dimensions of human experience-particularly the tremendous potential that all men and women possess. Maslow has been an inspiration for virtually all humanistic psychologists, and humanity. Although many might consider this praise somewhat exaggerated, no one can deny Maslow's central importance as an original thinker and a pioneer in human potential psychology. At a time when most psychologists focused aspects of human nature that were considered abnormal, Abraham Maslow shifted to focus to look at the positive sides of mental health. His interest in human potential, seeking peak experiences and improving mental health by seeking personal growth had a lasting influence on psychology Maslow's ideas have been criticized for their lack of scientific proof. He was criticized as too soft scientifically by American psychologists. In 2006, conservative social critic Christina Hoff Sommers and practicing psychiatrist Sally Satel asserted that, due to lack of empirical (all knowledge is derived from sense and experience) support. Maslow's ideas have fallen out of fashion and are "no longer taken seriously in the world of academic psychology." Positive psychology spends much of its research looking for how things go right rather than the more pessimistic view point of how things go wrong. Furthermore, the Hierarchy of Needs has been accused of having a cultural bias—mainly reflecting the Western way of life. Humanist psychology, also coined positive psychology, is criticized for its lack of empirical validation and therefore its lack of usefulness in treating specific problems. It may also fail to help or diagnose people who have severe mental disorders. Maslows work focused on self-actualization most specifically; Self Awareness, Honesty, and Self Development. "Honesty and taking responsibility for one's actions are essential elements in self- actualizing. Rather than pose and give answers that are calculated to please another or to make ourselves look good, we can look within for the answers. Each time we do so, we get in touch with our inner selves." -Abraham Maslow "In the process of self-actualizing we become more aware of our inner nature and act in accordance with it. This means we decide for ourselves whether we like certain films, books, or ideas, regardless of others' opinions."- Abraham Maslow Self-development is not a thing that someone either has or does not have. It is a never-ending process of making real one's potential. It refers to a way of continually living, working, and relating to the world rather than to a single accomplishment.
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