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Transcript of Energy Security
2: Affordability of Supply: Accessible at a sustainable cost, which promotes economic growth
3: Friendliness to Environment: Allows environmental sustainability and limits health cost to residents 3 Components Availability of vital commodity necessary for State security. Energy Security Defined 2006: Asia's oil consumption exceeded North America's. Recent Developments China was self-sufficient until 1993.
8 million barrels of oil per day
7% of the World's oil market Presently What is Energy Security and Why is it important?
Threats and Risks
How to maintain Energy Security
control 75% of the world’s proven oil reserves
deregulated consumer side disadvantaged in facing unified state controlled supply side
Often extremely non-transparent; makes knowledge of volume and production trends unreliable
Many do not operate on a commercial basis;
Obliged to use significant part of revenue for state functions rather than investment in ensuring continued/ increased production
2/3 of the world’s oil transported by tankers
25% of world’s natural gas trade is in the form of liquid gas
Critical for the volumes of oil and LNG that pass through them
So narrow they could be blocked or access to them could be restricted
Attacks on energy = assymetrical tool
Tight energy markets = attacks have immense effect on energy prices
Global impact through minimal effort
Any countries: energy pipelines, pumping stations, LNG terminals, elect. transmission grids, and power plants represent attractive and at times fairly easy targets for terrorists and hackers
Rising fuel prices = increased interest
Non-proliferation experts worry - growth in world nuclear energy usage could lead to the proliferation of nuclear weapons.
Increased amounts of fissile material; could be diverted to military or terrorist programs + knowledge + trained individuals for nuclear weapons programs
"commercial fuel making factories represent a latent nuclear bomb making factory" Short-term:
Securing production (Extraction, Refineries),
transportation (Pipelines, Chokepoints).
Stockpiling of fuel: NATO members to stock 3 months worth of energy consumption
Diversification of supplies,
development of renewable energy
(Smart Grid) Maintaining Energy Security US: Focus on reliability of supply
Europe: Priority on Affordability and Friendliness to Environment
Developing Countries: Sustainable prices
China & India: Adapting to new dependence on the Global Market What is Security?
Different Goals EU: Smart Grid Wind Waves Solar Saudi Aramco (Saudi Arabia)
National Iranian Oil Company (Iran)
China National Petroleum Corporation (China)
Petroleos Mexicanos (Mexico)
Kuwait Petroleum Company (Kuwait)
Petroleos de Venezuela (Venezuela)
Abu Dhabi National Oil Company (UAE)
Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (Nigeria)
Rosneft (Russia) Top 10 National Oil Companies (2009) Nuclear Energy and Nuclear Weapons proliferation Threats and Risks:
Nationalized Oil Companies Threats and Risks:
Terrorism on Energy Infrastructure Threats and Risks:
Energy Transport Choke-points
Founded in Baghdad Sept. 1960
12 (mostly Arab) member countries
Supply side price- stabilizing mechanism Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries OPEC IEA Individual States Main Actors International Energy Accociation Established in 1974 as response to 1973 Oil Crisis under OECD
28 member states
Consumer response to OPEC organization Function
sharing oil among member states in case of short-term supply disruptions
long term plan to reduce dependence on OPEC Tools to achieve goals
promoting conservation measures to decrease consumptionestablishment of strategic petroleum reserves
publishes energy statistics that can serve as an alternative to those published by oil companies and governments Conclusion There is none,
it's an ongoing, increasingly important issue!