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Ancient Civilizations- Wk4


Sabrina Anand

on 13 August 2014

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Transcript of Ancient Civilizations- Wk4

The Minoans of Crete
It is a narrow sea dotted with many islands, some so small they do not appear on maps.
However, these islands are important in history because they served as “stepping stones” by which civilization passed from Egypt and Mesopotamia west into Europe.
The city of Troy, which they founded in Asia Minor, became rich and powerful.
Its downfall is recounted in the Iliad, an epic tale written by the Greek poet Homer
Archeological findings at Knossus on Crete reveal that the Minoans were a highly advanced people.
The homes of nobles had running water and were decorated with fresco paintings.
Minoan writings indicate that women were considered equal to men.
Later people developed an advanced civilization in the Aegean area.
This civilization was dominated by the Minoans of the island of Crete, although Crete is technically an island in the Mediterranean and not the Aegean.
The Minoans of Crete cont.
The Minoans of Crete cont.
The Minoans of Crete cont.
The Minoans of Crete cont.
The Early Greeks
The Early Greeks cont.
All Greeks believed that their chief gods resided atop Mount Olympus in northeastern Greece.
The Early Greeks cont.
In their search for good land, they founded more than 250 colonies throughout the Mediterranean area.
The Early Greeks cont.
The mountainous terrain affected the Greeks in another way.
Since fertile land was scarce where they lived, many Greeks left their homeland and migrated elsewhere.
The Early Greeks cont.
Life in Athens cont.
When boys turned eighteen, they were required to participate in two years of military training.
Emphasis on education and good citizenship helped make Athens a leader among the Greek city-states for many years.
Life in Athens
Life in Athens cont.
Life in Athens cont.
Women in Athens were treated well but had a few rights.
They were expected to stay home and concern themselves with domestic chores and raising children.
Life in Athens cont.
This meant that all citizens assembled and made laws themselves.
However, Athens was not a complete democracy.
Life in Sparta cont.
All aspects of Spartan life centered around physical conditioning.
Weak or deformed babies were taken from their parents and left on a mountainside to die from exposure.
Life in Sparta cont.
Partly because there were twenty times as many helots as citizens, the Spartans maintained a powerful army to reduce any chance of rebellion.
Life in Sparta
While Athens and other Greek city-states made great strides in such areas as art, literature, and philosophy, Sparta, another Greek city-state, developed into a military camp.
Life in Sparta cont.
From age twenty to sixty, men were on active duty in the military.
They were allowed to marry when they were thirty but they were required to spend the better part of their time in army barracks.
Waves of barbarians from the valley of the Danube River moved southward into Greece.
They were tall, fair people who called themselves Hellenes because they believed they had all descended from the same ancestor, the goddess Helen.
Because Greece was a rugged, mountainous terrain which was not easily settled, the early Greeks separated themselves into independent city-states.
Life in Sparta cont.
They did not serve in the military, but Spartan authorities believed that rigorous exercise aided girls in producing healthy children for the state.
In spite of the shortcomings of Athenian democracy, many of our modern democratic ideas originated there.
When the man of the house entertained male friends at home, his wife stayed out of sight.
The Aegean Sea lies between Asia Minor and Greece.
The Minoans derived their name from an early king named Minos.
The Minoan civilization was conquered and absorbed by the Greeks.
These paintings were made on wet plaster walls.
Their artisans used ivory, bronze, gold, and silver in making ornaments and figures.
The Minoans established colonies on the Aegean islands and in Greece and Asia Minor.
They pushed into Greece, which at the time was a wild and unsettled land; they had overrun the Minoan and other Aegean civilizations.
Although they never united into one nation, they shared many things in common, including language, literature and religion.
Among these gods were Zeus, Hera, Apollo, Athena, Ares, Demeter, and Aphrodite.
Some of the more important colonies were Byzantium in Asia Minor, Syracuse in Sicily, Naples in Italy, Marseilles in France, and Cyrene in North Africa.
Athens was one of the most important Greek city-states.
Only boys in Athens received an education.
Girls stayed home and were taught household duties and domestic skills by their mothers.
Boys were trained to become good citizens, and their schooling stressed development of both the mind and the body.
It developed a democratic society and became the cultural leader of Greece.
The kind of democracy practiced in Athens was a pure, or direct, democracy.
Citizenship was limited to males who owned land.
This excluded those men who were not landowners, as well as women, slaves, and outsiders.
Even the task of going to the market was reserved for the husband of the family.
Because of their emphasis on the military and their rejection of luxuries, the Spartans made no cultural contributions.
In time, their army became the most powerful one in Greece.
The Spartans ruled over a huge slave population known as helots.
Boys were removed from the home at age seven and underwent “basic training” in the army until they were twenty.
Girls likewise received vigorous physical training.
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