Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM


Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.


Copy of Untitled Prezi


tonhi nguyen

on 26 November 2013

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of Copy of Untitled Prezi


Most common type of bone disease
- literal meaning: “porous bone”
- weak and brittle
- increased risk breaking a bone
- discontinuity in a bone
- injury of a bone when tissue of bone is broken
How does that happen?
- bone is living tissue constantly being broken down and built up
- bone turnover
- imbalance
WHO definition of osteoporosis:
“Systemic skeletal disorder characterized by low bone mass and by microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue with subsequent increase in bone fragility and susceptibility to fracture”
Silent Killer
- osteoblasts and osteoclasts
- bone turnover is a balance

After age 30, osteoclast increases while osteoblast activity decreases

Primary and Secondary Osteoporosis
Primary Osteoporosis:
- main cause is age
- hormonal levels in men and women
Secondary Osteoporosis:
- can occur due to several chronic conditions that cause low bone mass
- anorexia, chronic liver disease, alcoholism, nutritional deficiencies, and malabsorption syndromes

- genetics
- ethnicity
- low bone mass density (BMD)
- low body weight
- history of previous fractures
- diet low in calcium
- rheumatoid arthritis
- glucocorticoids

- (0 to -0.99) = normal bone mineral density
- (-1 to -2.49) = lower than normal but not low enough (osteopenia)
- less than -2.5 without fracture = osteoporosis
- less than -2.5 with fracture or history of fracture = severe osteoporosis
Nazneen Patel
Aleena Rahat
Tonhi Nguyen

Diagnosis is based on two methods: Fragility Factor and Bone Mineral Density (BMD) criteria

- Fragility factor is usually diagnosed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry
- Bone mineral density is represented as either the Z score or the T score
- Z score
- T score
Can affect anybody
- from newborn babies to the elderly
- heredity
- lifestyle you choose
- other leading causes
Attack any bone in body
- mainly affects hips, spine, wrist
T scores
Risk Factors
Awareness and Prevention
- Statistics: 15% to 85% in last few years!
- Less than 15% of those diagnosed receive treatment for prevention
- Education Programs
- Nutrition and Exercise
Best Treatment:
- DEXA (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry)
- suggested by xrays, confirmed by tests
Early and correct diagnosis is key for effective therapy
- →bone formation
→- slowing or stopping the rate of breakdown
Two Ways To Look Into Treatment
- no cure for osteoporosis, however it can be controlled

Depends greatly on where fractures have occurred:
- hip fractures are most dangerous
- once receive treatment, patient can see change
- early diagnosis and detection as well as early treatment = better outcome
- more awareness, more research
Secondary Osteoporosis
Antiresorptive agents:
- decrease removal of calcium from bones

Hormone Replacement Therapy:
- taken orally or as a skin patch
- therapy for menopausal in women
- Positive effects singularly
- Risks when combined
- Still used but not recommended as much

- Stop bone loss, help build bone
- decrease risk of fracture by 50%
- prevention and treatment
- first nonhormonal medication for osteoporosis ever approved by FDA

Side effects:
- long-term use effects are unknown

- similar to alendronate
- hormone used as injection for many years
- nasal spray as well!

Side effects:
- not as effective
- minimal
- builds bone by 1.5% a year

- decrease risk of hip, wrist & spine fracture
- special measures to reduce side effects and increase absorption (orally)

- complicated fractures (broken hips)
- spine pain
- Kyphoplasty
Long term Disease
Teriparatide (Forteo)
- promise for severely diagnosed patients
- synthetic version of human hormone
- regulation and promotion
- self-injected
- switched to bisphosphonate after two years

Side Effects
- long term safety not established
- 24 month FDA approved
- the term osteoporosis
- osteoclast and osteoblasts
- the standard definition of osteoporosis was not until 1992
- 1980s, updates on technologies to measure bone density (medical imaging) prompted the medical community’s need and demand for a standard definition
- Construction of the term osteoporosis
Bone Formation
Primary Osteoporosis (aging)
Discrepancy In Literature
- location of diagnosis of osteoporosis
- diagnosing children
Picture References
Heffernan, E. J., O'Sullivan, P. J., Alkubaidan, F. O., Heran, M. S., Legiehn, G. M., & Munk, P. L. (2008). The Current Status of Percutaneous Vertebroplasty in Canada. Canadian Association Of Radiologists Journal, 59(2), 77-82.

MacLaughlin, E. J. (2010). Improving osteoporosis screening, risk assessment, diagnosis, and treatment initiation: Role of the health-system pharmacist in closing the gap. American Journal Of Health-System Pharmacy, 67S4-S8. doi:10.2146/ajhp100075

Cawthon, P. M. (2011). Gender Differences in Osteoporosis and Fractures. Clinical Orthopaedics & Related Research, 469(7), 1900-1905. doi:10.1007/s11999-011-1780-7

Wylie, C. W. (2010). Setting a standard for a “silent” disease: defining osteoporosis in the 1980s and 1990s. 41(4), 376-385. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1369848610000774

Wickham, R. (2011). Osteoporosis Related to Disease or Therapy in Patients With Cancer. Clinical Journal Of Oncology Nursing, 15(6), E90-E104.

Gass, M. G., & Hughes, B. H. (2006). Preventing osteoporosis-related fractures: An overview. 119(4), Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0002934305011976

Dhanapal, V., & Reeves, D. (2012). Bone health management in prostate cancer patients receiving androgen deprivation therapy. Journal Of Oncology Pharmacy Practice, 18(1), 84-90. doi:10.1177/1078155211402105

Heffernan, E. J., O'Sullivan, P. J., Alkubaidan, F. O., Heran, M. S., Legiehn, G. M., & Munk, P. L. (2008). The Current Status of Percutaneous

Schuiling, KD., Robinia, K., & Nye, R. (2011). Osteoporosis Update. Journal of Midwifery & Women’s Health. 56(6), 615-627. doi: 10.1111/j.1542-2011.2011.00135.x

Elliott, M. (2011). Taking control of osteoporosis to cut down on risk of fracture. Nursing Older People. 23(3), 30-35.

Bartl, R., & Frisch, B. (2009). Osteoporosis in Men. Osteoporosis. 25, 183-188. doi: 10.1007/978-3-540-79527-8_25

Martini, F. H. M., Timmons, M. J. T., & Tallitsch, R. B. T. (2012). Human Anatomy: Volume 1. San Francisco, CA: Benjamin Cummings

Bartl, R., & Frisch, B. (2009). Osteoporosis in Children. Osteoporosis. 26, 189-198. doi: 10.1007/978-3-540-79527-8_26
Martini, F. H. M., Timmons, M. J. T., & Tallitsch, R. B. T. (2012). Human Anatomy: Volume 1. San Francisco, CA: Benjamin Cummings
Most common
In Canada:
- ~1.4 million Canadians, for people aged 50 years or older the prevalence is 16% in women and 6.5% in men
- One in 4 Canadian women over 50 will suffer at least one osteoporotic fracture in their lifetime

In United States
- ~10 million Americans, following with a disproportionate effect on women; 80% are women and 20% are men
- One in two women and one in four men older than 50 years of age will experience an osteoporosis-related fracture in their remaining lifetime
Higher fracture risks are more common in women than men
Current Research
- Osteoporosis Related to Disease or Therapy in Patients With Cancer (Prostate Cancer)
- risk for bone mineral density loss due to the cancer-related therapy known as Androgen-deprivation
- ADT significantly increases the fracture risk in men with prostate cancer
- Thus, Optimization of the prevention and management of osteoporosis in prostate cancer patients receiving ADT can and should be actively incorporated in to daily practice.
"Womans disease?"
Full transcript