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Canada between 1713-1800
Transcript of Canada between 1713-1800
By Nathan Tong
Significant events in Canada in 1713-1800
The Treaty of Utrecht
The treaty of Utrecht was a peace treaty signed by a lot of different European countries such as Great Britain, France, Spain, Portugal, and the Dutch Republic. It kept peace in between all of these countries, but especially between France and Britain. In North America, France gave Britain the Acadian territory Nova Scotia, Newfoundland and the Hudson's Bay Company's territory on Rupert's Land. New France prospered after the treaty because the treaty caused all fighting to stop between Britain and New France, otherwise, the British would have battled into New France and tooken over.
The Seven Years' War
The Seven Years' War (French-Indian War in North America) was a worldwide war mainly between France and Great Britain. It began when Britain declared war on the French although they have been fighting for many years before. A famous battle during this war is the Battle of the Plains of Abraham, which took place in Quebec City. It was a decisive battle as Quebec City was the capital of New France and a major trading port for the French, but was taken over by the British after the battle. The war ends when the Treaty of Paris is signed by Great Britain, France, and the Spanish Empire to halt all fighting in the war.
The Seven Years' War (cont.)
The war results in British victory, where the whole of New France is surrendered to the British. New France is gone forever after this war. All French territory is surrendered, either to the Spanish or the British.
Death of General Wolfe (Battle of the Plains of Abraham)
Treaty of Peace and Friendship
Map of North America after the Seven Years' War
The treaty of peace and friendship stopped all warfare between the British and the Mi'kmaq people. The treaty was signed in 1960 and ended 75 years of British-Mi'kmaq fighting. The Mi'kmaq had been allies with the French during the Seven Years' War. The British and the French are pretty much sworn enemies, so the Mi'kmaq had to become enemies with the British. Being enemies against each other led to lots of combat against each other. That is why the treaty was made to stop all fighting.
Developments in Canada in 1713-1800
Developments in the Fur Trade
The Hudson's Bay Company played a major part in the fur trade. It controlled the fur trade troughout much of the British-controlled North America time period. In 1774, the Hudson's Bay Co. opened the Cumberland House in Saskatchewan. It was Canada's first inland trading post and one of the most important ones too. Some of the HBC's traders and trappers made early relationships with the Aboriginal peoples of Canada. They traded Hudson's Bay point blankets (wool blankets) in exchange for beaver skins. The blankets were the main thing traded betwen the Aboriginals and the HBC. In 1779, the North-West Company was founded to compete with the Hudson's Bay Company. The North-West Company actually seriously impacted the Hudson's Bay Company's profits.
Map of Cumberland House in Saskatchewan
Developments in health-care and medicine
During the 18th century, scurvy was a major disease that killed many, many people. In fact, it killed more sailors than enemies killed them in war! During the Seven Years' War, the Royal Navy recruited almost 185 000 soldiers to fight for the British; almost 135 000 died from diseases, mainly scurvy. A native found the cure for scurvy and gave the cure to the British which helped save a lot of people suffering from scurvy.
Developments in education
When the British took over New France after the Seven Years' War, they completely changed the education there. The British made everyone change their language to English and change to the English culture. Since New France was where we are right now and if the British didn't take over, we probably would be speaking French right now and have a French culture.
People and their impact on Canada
The British had a huge impact on Canada. The British established a fur trade with the Natives first and founded the Hudson's Bay Company. (a major fur trade company) During the Seven Years' War, the British took over New France and changed the culture into the British culture. Canada became a British territory after.
The Hudson's Bay Company's coat of arms
The French were a major part of Canada in the 18th century. France had a huge part of Canada back then and had many inhabitants. They had trade pacts with the Natives also, and traded many goods. New France was a very successful territory as they had many goods and was by the ocean, so they could go back to France easily.
The Natives impacted Canada by inventing a cure for scurvy. (spruce bark tea) It saved many lives as scurvy was a major disease at the time and killed many people. The Natives also had trades with the British and the French. They traded beaver furs in exchange for weapons, tools, pots and pans, as well as many other things. Beaver furs were very valuable at the time, so this gave France and Britsin lots of money.
The flag of New France