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Chapter 8 Section 1: Second Great Awakening
Transcript of Chapter 8 Section 1: Second Great Awakening
The Second Great Awakening
-New wave of spiritual revivalism led to growth in church membership, humanitarianism and reform, especially in South and Mid-West
-Revivals – large groups of people would gather at spiritual camps to be “saved,” preached personal salvation, Charles Grandison Finney was one of the most important evangelists denouncing alcohol and slavery
-Methodists and Baptists saw largest growth in membership thanks to Revivals
-Saw the rise of several new religious sects in America:
1.Unitarian – appealed to intellectuals, optimistic, believed in reason, against predestination, against holy Trinity
2.Mormonism – Founded by Joseph Smith, appealed to individualistic Americans, faced hostility thanks to its militarism, polygamy, voted as a group, Smith murdered in 1844, Brigham Young led Mormons to Utah
3.Adventists – believed world would end when Christ returned October 22, 1844
4.Shakers – founded by Ann Lee, believed men and women were equal, did not last as shakers cannot marry and have children
-African Americans also participated in Awakening, inspired beliefs about freedom in South and allowed for new arena for education and community interaction
-Emphasized that “truth” transcends the senses, it cannot be observed, very individualistic and optimistic, key people of the movement were:
1.Ralph Waldo Emerson – stressed self reliance and freedom (Pg 247)
2.Henry David Thoreau – believed in peaceful protest of unjust laws called Civil Disobedience
-Art styles, stressed nature and beauty of American landscape, Hudson River School
-Saw the formation of Utopian Communities, were not very successful, or had strange practices (Brook Farm, MA) (Oneida Community)
-Awakening and Transcendentalism inspired people to not only better themselves but society as well:
1.Prison Reform – Dorothea Dix, after seeing MA prison containing mentally ill she lobbied for change, Rehabilitation or treatment rather then punishment, Quakers also took a leading role in rehabilitation through meditation and isolation in Eastern State Penitentiary
2.Education – prior to mid 1800s was no uniform educational policy, sparked compulsory, tax-supported education, civilized nation that was ignorant and free, according to Jefferson. “never was and never will be”
A.led to growth of secondary education
B.Replacement of one room school house
The Second Great Awakening