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• Judaism: Dominant / primary religion: core belief the there is only one omnipotent God. God chosen the Israelites to give His law to and to establish an everlasting covenant.
• Torah: Law of Moses (Genesis , Leviticus, Exodus, Numbers, Deuteronomy)
• Talmud: Oral and written Law
Modern religious practice / Major Holidays:
Modern religious practice / Major Holidays:
•Shabbat (Sabbath): Seventh day of the week, the day of rest
•Yom Kippur: Day of Atonement,
•Hanukkah (Chanukah): Feast of dedication “Festival of lights”
•Passover: Commemorates the exodus of the people of Israel from bondage in Egypt
Daily Practice of the Jewish Religion:
•Daily Torah reading:
•Kosher dietary practice:
•Bar Mitzvah: Age 13 for boys
•Bat Mitzvah: Age 12 for girls Sociopolitical Issues •Stereotype of Jewish American: Some anti-Semitic secular views have formed negative views of American Jews
•Assimilation and Authenticity: Since 1990, U.S. Jewish population has decreased from 5.5 million to 5.2. The
American civilization has influenced American Jews to embrace, assimilate or choose to keep their authenticity.
•Significant decline in birth rate: Avoidance of marriage or choosing to be single may be a factor. Pursue of a higher education and career is a significant factor. The more education a couple has completed, the less likely it is to produce more than one or two children. This is also compounded by the high out marriage among younger American Jews.
•Views on Muslims and Pro-Palestinian cause:
•Israel –Palestinian conflict begins in the early 20th century. There is conflict between Israeli Zionists and the Arab population living in Palestine
•On 29 November 1947, The United Nations General assembly recommended the adoption and implementation of the United Nations Partition Plan of Mandatory Palestine.
•May 14, 1948 Israel gains independence and becomes a nation which is recognized the United Nations
•1967 six day war (Arab-Israeli conflict) ends with Israeli forces gaining control of the Gaza strip , the Sinai peninsula , the West Bank and East Jerusalem
• Some U.S Jewish political groups grass-root political awareness to gain American support for Israel
•American liberal Jews are in favor of more action towards peace processes in Israel
•American conservative Jews feel overall , that America should back off and let Israel make its own decisions History •Biblical roots of the nation of Israel:
1.Yahweh makes a covenant with Abram
2.Yahweh later names Abram (Abraham)meaning father of many nation
3.Abraham has two sons, Ishmael and Isaac
4.Isaac has two sons, Jacob and Esau
5.Jacob has a dozen sons, who are taken to represent the twelve tribes of Israel
6.After an encounter with an angelic being” Yahweh names Jacob Israel(one who wrestles with God and man and prevails)
7.Jacob ‘s youngest son( Joseph)is sold into slavery to the Egyptians by his older brothers
8.Yahweh uses a chain of events to bring recognition to Joseph. He is raised from a slave to the position of Pharaoh
9.During a great famine Joseph has his entire family brought to Egypt to save them
10.After the death of Joseph, the Egyptians make slaves of the Israelites
11.The Israelites are in bondage for four hundred years
12.Yahweh hears the Israelites cry and promises a deliver
13.All Israelite boys are killed by the Egyptians , but Moses is saved by the hand of Yahweh
14.Yahweh calls Moses and instructs him to rescue his people
15.Yahweh sends Moses to tell Pharaoh “Let my people go”
16.Last of ten plagues Yahweh sends to Egypt the angel of death to kill all first born. Both people and live stock.
17.Death has passed over the Houses of the Israelites
18.The children of Israel are free of their enslavement and are being directed to the Promise Land
19.Pharaoh changes his mind and pursues the Israelites
20.Yahweh parts the Red Sea to deliver the isrealits,but the Egyptian army is left to drown
Ever since this event Jewish people through history have remembered this day when Yahweh rescued them from Egypt.
This will come to be known as the Passover. To remember what Yahweh has done for them, He instructs them to prepare
a special meal (Sedar). During this meal, Jews eat special bread called matzah and retell the story of Egypt. The Dreidel Game
Usually you use candy or nuts to play this game. In case you don't have those items to play with, we've added points here for you to use.
N - Nes ... N or nun stands for nisht or nothing. If the dreidel lands on nun, you do nothing.
G - Gadol ... G or gimel stands for ganz or all. Take everything in the middle.
Give yourself 20 Points.
H - Haya ... H or hay stands for halb or half. Take half of what is in the middle plus one if there is an odd number of objects.
Give yourself 5 Points.
S - Sham ... S or shin stands for shtel or put in. Put two objects into the middle.
Take Away 2 Points.
The four letters which appear on the four corners of a dreidel alude to the miracle of Hanukkah. They spell out: Nes (N-miracle), Gadol (G-great), Haya (H-happened) and Sham (S-there, meaning in Israel).
You may print out a copy of this page to use with your Dreidel that you make. REFERENCES References for slides:
Derald Wing Sue, David Sue (2013)6th edition: Counseling the culturally diverse theory and practice, 449-455
Susan Tyler Hitchcock (1984) National Geographic “Geography of religion”, 206-242
Rabbi Milton Steinberg (1975) Basic Judaism, 18-47
Stephen M. Wylen (1952) the book of the Jewish year, 9-42
Daniel J. Elazar (2008) Jerusalem center for public affairs: article the problem of the American Jewish community:
The Gale group: Jewish virtual library, (2008): article Family American Jewish immigration
Adele Berlin and Marc Zvi Brettler , (1985) The Jewish study Bible, Chapters: Genesis -Deuteronomy
The Jewish press.com
(2009, April 20). American Jews Did Little To Help Their Brethren During The Holocaust But Why?. The Voice of Orthodox Jewish Community. Retrieved April 1, 2013, from http://www.vosizneias.com/30372/2009/04/20/new-york-american-jews-did-little-to-help-their-brethren-during-the-holocaust-but-why/
Sarna, J. (2000). The American Jewish Experience through the Nineteenth Century: Immigration and Acculturation, The Nineteenth Century, Divining America: Religion in American History, TeacherServe, National Humanities Center. National Humanities Center - Welcome to the National Humanities Center. Retrieved April 1, 2013, from http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/tserve/nineteen/nkeyinfo/judaism.htm
The United States and the Holocaust. (n.d.). United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Retrieved April 1, 2013, from http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005182
Jewish culture [Web log message]. Retrieved from http://nursing322sp10.wordpress.com/jewish-culture/
Jewish virtual library" division of the American-Israeli cooperative enterprise. "Jewish music , an overview" by Moshe Denburg 2013 Characteristics and strengths:•Spiritual and religious values: Because Jewish people believe that God made a covenant with them and their nation, they pay a high degree of adherence towards religious traditions•Judaism: Despite of geographic location, all Jews rather American or Israeli (Orthodox or Reform) share the common ground of their religion.•Family bonds: Even Jews who do not consider themselves religious attend or belong to a synagogue. Families are bonded by time spent together celebrating spiritual holidays. Some consider them cultural event rather than religious.•Identification of Jewishness: Some individuals associate themselves as Jewish by parentage or upbringing. Only a half who identify themselves as Jews follow Judaism.•American Jews in American society: American Jews respectfully, have made themselves well represented in American society playing key roles in Politics, business, education, arts and entertainment.•Historical bonds: Many American Jews feel that much of their identity and bond, also revolves around their historical past and experiences. History History IMMIGRATION TO THE UNITED STATES IN THE ERA OF THE HOLOCAUST.
In spite of the persecution of Jews in Germany, our country made it very hard for Jews to migrate. The economic hardships of the Depression increased antisemitism, isolationism, and xenophobia. Inflexible andrestrictive Immigration Laws were passed by the US Congress in 1924.
Moreover, in 1940, the United States further limited Jewish immigration by delaying visa approvals on national security grounds
However, in 1939 and 1940, more than half of all immigrants were Jewish, most of them refugees from Europe. Regardless of many obstacles, more than 200,000 Jews found protection in the United States from 1933 to 1945 (United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, n.d.). History America during the Holocaust
Not only were Jews experiencing anti-Semitism in Germany but also in our country.
•During the Holocaust, less than 30,000 Jews a year migrated to the United States, and many were turned away due to immigration policies.
•The holocaust was mostly ignored by American media.
•Polls conducted during this time showed that 77% of Americans were against allowing a large number of Jewish refugees in.
•After America declared war on Germany, Jews’ caution became stronger. Jews had to convince Americans that it wasn’t “a Jewish war” or that they wanted the war as part of a “secret plot for world domination” (The Voice of Orthodox Jewish Community, 2009). History Americanization
American Jews of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries established patterns that later generations would follow. American Judaism became voluntary and diverse.
In America, a Jew's faith was not registered with the state, as it was in most of Europe, and observance depended on the individual. American Jews resisted the hierarchical religious authority structures of Europe.
No national "chief rabbi" was elected and no religious organization exercised unrestricted authority. These modifications balanced American norms and values and the sometimes incompatible demands of Judaism (Sarna, 2000). Famous Jews Alfred Adler
Austrian psychologist founder of Individual Psychology. Jewish migrant to America in 1934 when the Nazis forced him to close his clinics in Vienna because he was a Jew. He moved permanently to the United States, bringing his family with him.
Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist founder of Logotherapy—theory that states that the primary motivational force of a person is to find a meaning in life. Holocaust survivor and author of the book Man’s Search for Meaning, in which he summaries how his theories helped him survive the Holocaust and how it helped him reinforce his theories. Characteristics Characteristics and strengths:
•Spiritual and religious values: Because Jewish people believe that God made a covenant with them and their nation, they pay a high degree of adherence towards religious traditions
•Judaism: Despite of geographic location, all Jews rather American or Israeli (Orthodox or Reform) share the common ground of their religion.
•Identification of Jewishness: Some individuals associate themselves as Jewish by parentage or upbringing. Only a half who identify themselves as Jews follow Judaism.
•Family bonds: Even Jews who do not consider themselves religious attend or belong to a synagogue. Families are bonded by time spent together celebrating spiritual holidays. Some consider them cultural event rather than religious.
•American Jews in American society: American Jews respectfully, have made themselves well represented in American society playing key roles in Politics, business, education, arts and entertainment.
•Historical bonds: Many American Jews feel that much of their identity and bond, also revolves around their historical past and experiences. Religious Clothing Religious Clothing Religious clothing The Dreidel Game Late 1880’s-Early 1900’s
In the 1880s, the Jewish persecutions in Russia had a great impact in immigration to the United States. By 1924, around two million Eastern European Jews had immigrated to America.
At first, many native and German-born Jews in America looked down on newcomers. They feared that immigration would fuel anti-Semitism, and that the aliens would never adapt to American society (Sarna, 2000). Jewish Food Jewish Food
In a nutshell, Jewish Dietary Laws say:
1. Certain animals may not be eaten at all. Only animals that are ruminant (chew its cud) and have split hooves may be eaten.
2. Of the animals that may be eaten, the birds and mammals must be slaughtered in accordance with Jewish law.
3. Certain parts of permitted animals may not be eaten.
4. All blood must be drained from the meat or broiled out of it before it is eaten.
5. Meat (the flesh of birds and mammals) cannot be eaten with dairy.
6. Eggs, fruits, vegetables and grains are considered pareve, and can be eaten with either meat or dairy. Fish is also considered pareve, but some kosher observant Jews do not eat fish with meat.
7. Utensils that have come into contact with meat (while hot) may not be used with dairy, and vice versa. Utensils that have come into contact with non-kosher food (while hot) may not be used with kosher food.
8. Grape products made by non-Jews may not be eaten. Stereotypes 30 % of Americans believe that American Jews are more loyal to Israel than to America.
29 % believe that Jews are responsible for the death of Christ.
35 % of foreign-born Hispanics believe the same.
Ex. On July 28, 2006 Naveed Haq, a Muslim, went to a Jewish Federation in Seatttle and shot a woman dead wounding five others. His motive was a belief that Jews are responsible for conflicts in the Middle East.
(Sue & Sue , 2013 ) Music JEWISH MUSIC
The Jewish people and their music have their roots in the Middle East, specifically in the land of Israel, and their branches everywhere. They have lived, for over 2000 years, amongst many cultures, both Eastern and Western - from Iran to Israel, to the Western Mediterranean and North Africa, to Europe, and most recently, the Americas.
Thus, there is a unique property of Jewish music that defies geographical location. This property can be called inter-cultural synthesis.
For millennia, Jews have been global wanderers; from the beginning of the Common Era, about 2000 years ago, until quite recently, they have lived amidst many cultures not their own. To preserve their identity, in a sea of foreign culture, Jewish people have always deemed it wiser to incorporate foreign cultural elements into the Jewish mainstream than to resist all outer influence absolutely.
Thus, to a large degree, Jewish Music is a cross-cultural phenomenon, the music of the wanderer. Undoubtedly, certain Jewish ritual musical forms have their sources in antiquity, but the idea of creative adaptation has been a hallmark of Jewish musical life for a very long time; thus, Jewish Music has many faces Family Systems A Jewish home can be identified both by the objects in the home and by what takes place there.
While individual families differ in their religious practice and Jewish interests, certain elements link Jewish homes to one another--and to other Jewish homes throughout history.
One prominent symbol is the mezuzah, a box-encased scroll that serves as a literal acting out of the biblical command to “write these words on the doorposts of your house and on your gates” (Deuteronomy 11:20). Communication Style Some orthodox Jews do not shake hands with members of the opposite sex, and prefer to only greet verbally (Freilich, 2005).
Jewish people typically speak the language of the country in which they live; yet the language in prayer is Hebrew.
Additionally, “All body language and behavior should be modest and proper among observant Jewish people” (Freilich, 2005). Differences between the Jewish culture and the US culture Therapeutic barriers and considerations Issues that have concerned Jews failed to resonate with the counseling profession, including, for the most part, many of the most outspoken advocates for multicultural counseling.
Texts on multicultural counseling often do not address Jewish Americans as a diverse group.
Only 8% of multicultural courses in APA doctoral programs in counseling covered Jews as a distinct cultural group.
Few articles in counseling journals have involved Jewish Americans, and in some texts, Jewish Americans have been portrayed in a stereotypic manner.
(Sue & Sue , 2011 ) Education
Known as “The people of the book” Jews valued education long before migrating to the United States. In America. Education is the great leveler—the one thing that Jewish Americans immediately embraced as a path to opportunity for themselves and their children. http://www.pbs.org/jewishamericans/jewish_life/education_and_philanthropy.html Intervention Strategies Counselors should recognize that American Jews may have identity concerns that deal with anti-semitism, living under Christian privilege, the Holocaust, and the invisibility of Judaism.
Jews are highly diverse in regard to cultural and ethnic identity and adherence to religious orthodoxy.
The counselor should not assume that all Jewish clients see Jewish identity or practice Judaism in the same manner.
Because most clinicians are from a Christian background, the traditions, values and religious rituals that are important to Jewish Americans are foten overlooked or are dismissed. Sociopolitical Concerns David Duke spoke to a group of Holocaust deniers at a conference on the Holocaust conveyed by Iran's president in 2006.
During his speech, the former Imperial Wizard of the Ku Klux Klan and Louisiana State Representative claimed that the Holocaust was a hoax perpetrated by European Jews to justify the occupation of Palestine and the creation of Israel.
(Sue & Sue , 2011 ) Stereotypes Jewish Americans have long been targets of discrimination and prejudice.That such prejudice continues to this day in statistics that of the 1,376 hate crimes motivated by religious bias.
Prejudice is also shown in personal statements, such as in 2006 when director Mel Gibson said that, "Jews are responsible for all the wars of the world".
They have been stereotyped as hungry for wealth, power, and control. Education Jews are a highly educated group, with 62 % of those 18 and older possessing at least a bachelor's degree, versus than that of the total population.
Jewish Americans were in the forefront of the covil rights movement in the 1960s and in general Jews describe themselves as politically liberal.
Jewish Americans are well represented in all aspects of American society in terms of business, education, politics, entertainment, and the arts.
(Sue & Sue , 2013 ) Discrimination During the WWII there was a limited amount of public education available to Jews in Eastern Europe for several centuries.
When there were no laws prohibiting discrimination in employment there was a very high incidence of employers specifying that Jews are not wanted in their work environment.
“They were excluded from many basic industries such as commercial banking, automobile manufacturing, shipping and transportation, agriculture and mining” (Waldman, 1995).
Now that there are laws prohibiting discrimination it illegal to refuse hire and equality to anyone due to their religion or race. The Jewish people recognize alternative traditional holidays
Orthodox Jews eat only Kosher foods
Very strict rules are applied to female and male intimate interactions, of which are only to occur after marriage
Modesty is seen as an important value and social trends may not be acceptable
The Jewish people recognize certain eating habits/patterns in coordination with some holidays
Judaism is richly tied to the Hebrew language Music THE THREE STREAMS OF JEWISH MUSIC
We can describe Jewish Music as having three distinct streams. One is the Ashkenazi, or Western stream. This includes Klezmer, and is music
Originating in Eastern Europe and extending to the rest of Europe and the Americas.The second stream is the Sephardi, which refers to Mediterranean cultural sources, including Spain, Portugal, North Africa, Greece, and Turkey.
The third stream is the Mizrahi, literally Eastern, and refers to the music of Jewish people who resided over the centuries amidst Arabic cultures.
Of course these three streams are not completely separate, but do in fact intersect in many places (see diagram 1 below).