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How to Outline - Introductions, Conclusions, Transitions and Outlines (9,10)
Transcript of How to Outline - Introductions, Conclusions, Transitions and Outlines (9,10)
- this is the outline created by you, but not often shared to others unless you are specifically looking for feedback
This is a working draft of your main ideas, subpoints, etc. This will go through many drafts and changes before your ideas are finalized.
This will be where you begin to think about time frames within your speech and how you will effectively fit in that window
- this is the outline that contains all the ideas you will cover in your speech, including research you will cite and all the support you plan to use.
It is ALWAYS typed and should be formatted to how I am about to show you
It requires full sentences on your points rather than just fragments
Will contain a works cited page MLA formatted
- these are your notecards that you prepare for your actual speech.
Review tips on page 182 of book & practice a working outline for hypothetical speech
Three Types of Outlines
Outlining - your key to success. It helps you stay organized. Let's just talk through it.
Conclusions are important because they leave the audience with a final summary and impression of the entire presentation
Conclusions are typically not as long as an intro but have
two important goals.
1. Review the topic and main points
2. Lasting Thought:
The second goal of the conclusion is to create a lasting thought about your speech. This can be achieved by sharing an idea or phrase that brings concepts of the speech together and will remain with the audience after your speech has ended. Remember to finish strong.
This speech is ok. He has great organization, but introduction lacks direction and summary of main points and his conclusion does not summarize his main points, but he does point number two above VERY well. This is a student from Georgia Tech welcoming the new engineering class to the school.
Moving on to Conclusions
TRS - Topic Revelation Statement
TRS is your speech in one sentence. It clearly defines the subject you are speaking about.
The Significance Statement
It is the relative importance of a topic to the audience member.
You remember that one of the goals of the introduction is to inspire the audience and this is your chance.
Preview of Main Points
"Today, I will demonstrate first how to prepare the ingredients, second how to properly execute and lastly I will present the final product. "
Now, after the attention device - lets review more
Begin with a quote -
again just make sure it pertains to the speech and isn’t just random
i.e. Former President Bill Clinton said “Sometimes when people are under stress, they hate to think, and it's the time when they most need to think.”
Begin with a hypothetical situation
- Sometimes a fictional scenario is the most effective way to support your point.
i.e. - imagine waking up on the second story of your dorm, apartment or house and as you look out the window, your entire neighborhood and all of Los Angeles is covered in water 10 feet deep. It could happen. Today, I’m here to talk to you about…
Begin with a story -
it can be a personal story from someone you know or it could be a story from someone the entire class knows
Just be sure the story doesn’t get excessively long. Just because it’s a personal story doesn’t mean it doesn’t need preparation so you don’t ramble about your buddy
Reveal a startling statistic
- self explanatory and can be very effective. Just check your sources.
Begin with a visualization
- similar to a hypothetical only you are putting the audience in the situation
i.e. - imagine yourself in freezing cold frozen lake ice fishing. The ice cracks and you fall through the ice and into the freezing cold water. You know that you have 10 minutes to get out of the water before hypothermia kicks in…
This isn’t the end all be all for attention devices, but a good start. Just make sure it always pertains to your speech.
Introduction Content Areas - Attention Device Examples
Use humor -
Just make sure
1. IT ACTUALLY pertains to your topic
2. It is NOT offensive
Make a reference to the audience -
Be sure to keep this “general” as to not make one person feel spotlighted unless you asked them for permission.
i.e. - giving a speech on a certain topic and you make a reference to a student in the class who is highly skilled in it.
Find common ground with the audience -
know that in most public speaking settings people are asking themselves “what is in it for me?”
i.e. - majority of us in this classroom have struggles with parking on a daily basis, well I have the ideal solution to this daily struggle…
Make a reference to the occasion
- this doesn’t really pertain to this class, but if it was a special event, etc.
Introduction Content Areas - Attention Device Examples
Ask a question
- not just any question. Ask an interesting question that causes your classmates to think. Don't overuse this
1. Real Questions
- just be sure you word them correctly so you don’t waste the first two minutes with a Q&A session (i.e. - by show of hands or by applause who likes…?)
2. Rhetorical Question
- a question that doesn’t require the audience to answer
i.e. - have you ever held a secret that you really wanted to tell, but couldn’t?
Just make sure if you use a question to start your speech, make sure it’s actually interesting enough to grab the attention of the audience.
Make a provocative or startling statement
- unexpected statements can actually get the audience to listen
i.e. - despite what you may think, coffee is just as harmful to your body as cigarettes
Refer to a recent event
i.e. - on Monday Los Angeles experienced a 4.4 earthquake at 6:25 a.m., today I’m here to talk to you about the physical effects on our city.
This can be tough to do at times because it doesn’t allow for much preparation, but it is an option
Attention Device Examples
Goals of an Introduction
Gain the attention of the audience
- do this in a way where they are ready to hear the material. Don’t just get up front and try to shock us or make us laugh with something that doesn’t relate at all.
Reveal your speech topic clearly
- there should be no confusion on the subject you are speaking about when you begin your body.
Inspire audience interest in your topic
- motivate them to want to listen to the rest of the speech. Even if this means they disagree with you, audiences are much more likely to listen to speakers they like.
- this is the friendly feeling between you and your audience so they will be open and receptive.
Establish your personal credibility
- way you dress helps immensely.
Give the audience a “road map”
- this is a broad general map. Not specifics. That happens in the body of you speech.
Much like an agenda for a meeting, this is a list of the main points that will be covered in the speech.
Don’t discuss them in detail; just give us a title version of what will be discussed in the speech.
This does two things for us:
1. it gives us a game plan of what to expect in the body of the speech
2. it gives us an idea of how long the speech will be
3. Significance Statement & 4. Preview of Main Points
Give Us Purpose – A Reason to Listen
Here’s the secret: by talking about how a topic impacts us, you are already giving the speech a solid purpose.
Audiences are always self-interested, so talking to them about them is always a good thing.
Audiences are made up of individuals, and these individuals want to improve their lives in small and large ways.
How? Answer that question, and you have a purpose.
2. Topic Revelation Statement
Spend some time getting us interested in the topic.
How does what you have to say affect us?
Are you teaching us a skill? If so, indicate to us how useful this skill will be?
Will it make us lots of money?
Will we be able to impress or entertain friends?
Will we achieve some sort of inner peace?
Are you trying to convince us to do something or believe something?
If so, what’s the potential price of not listening to you?
1. Attention Device
The introduction is the hardest part of a speech in terms of preparation.
- why do we do it?
It would be a lot easier if a speech could start with something simple, such as:
“I’m going to show you how to lower your taxes. Okay? Ready? Go.”
Christmas gifts example
A good introduction does exactly that. It gets us excited.
Introduction & Attention Device
PROF. KENT WALLS
INTRODUCTIONS, CONCLUSIONS, TRANSITIONS & OUTLINING
You must label and write these in your speech
- this is very basic knowledge, but many people struggle with these. They are the phrases used to connect the major parts of your speech together. They allow us to get from one point to another.
Basic speech layout and where you will use transitions
Introduction to First Main Point
First Main Point to Second Main Point
Second Main Point to Third Main Point
Third Main Point to Conclusion
After done with introduction you can say something similar to:
“now let’s find out the process behind how to….”
“so now let’s explore the natural beauty of….”
After done with first main point - you can summarize and move on
“now that you know how to turn on your guitar and check your tuning, it’s time to move on to turning on your amp and checking your levels.”
The Greeting - Simplest part of the speech, but also easiest to overlook. For an experienced speaker, this is natural and they don’t need to plan it. That said, you should plan this being that these are some of your first speeches. So how do you prepare an effective greeting?
1. Be natural
2. Be conversational
3. Smile - truly smile - don’t fake smile
i.e. - my radio class greetings
The Attention Device - It is a short two -four sentence section of your speech designed specifically to draw the attention of your audience to you, your speech and the specific topic. This is a great opportunity to get creative.
Examples of attention devices?
Lets Review Again
They do not include a lot of information about the topic of your speech
(That information is presented in the body)
Instead, an introduction inspires, motivates, prepares, excites, inspires, provokes an audience
It’s the first part of your speech and should be approximately 15% of your speaking time
3 min speech - approximately 30 seconds is 15%
5 min speech - 45 seconds is 15%
7 min speech - approximately 1 minute is 15%
Just be sure to always leave yourself enough time to get your main points across.
Only pay attention to the sections with the arrow for this class on this slide
Works cited made one mistake
It needs to be on a separate page
- Greeting (optional)
- set the tone
Topic Revelation Statement
- Give us topic and purpose
- Why the speech matters
Preview of main points
- Outline the game plan.
It's your speech in one sentence - REVEAL YOUR TOPIC
Significance Statement -
is why your speech matters
Preview of Main Points -
Outline the Game Plan – How Long Is This Speech?
Connor Neil - Author, motivator talking to sales at Tango