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Transcript of Albert Bandura
Bandura's View of the Individual:
Changes in Perceived Self-Efficacy
The extent to which an individual believes
in their ability to perform actions.
Determinant of actions
Different than outcome expectations
Does not imply lack of fear or anxiety
Not a global concept
Has a relation with environment
Self-efficacy and Substance Abuse:
Assessment Using a Brief Phone Interview
Relation between abstinence from crack-cocaine and self-efficacy levels
Phone Interview as follow up
Self-efficacy and Substance Abuse
Self efficacy increased during treatment
Continued to rise after treatment
Higher for abstainers
Self-efficacy and Substance Abuse
Short questionnaire sufficient for follow up
Self-efficacy important in treatment
Can also be applied :
Attractive models, behaviors of value
Verbal or image symbol
3) Behavioral Production
Three questions upon performing a behavior
Four Processes of Observational Learning
The Bobo Doll Experiment
- mental and emotional factors
- self observation
- self evaluation
Triadic Reciprocal Causation
The capacity to exercise control over one’s own life.
The most crucial self-reflective mechanism: self-efficacy.
Human agency does not prove possession of “homunculus”.
The ability and willingness to cooperate with others.
What are some examples of proxy agency in our lives?
“No one has the time, energy and resources to master every realm of everyday life.” – Bandura (2001)
The downsides of
People’s beliefs in their own capabilities and their control over environmental events.
What does it mean to have a high self-efficacy? A low self-efficacy?
“Confidence” vs “Self-Efficacy”
Self-efficacy does not equal to outcome expectations or aspirations
What contributes to self-efficacy?
Physical / emotional states
People’s shared beliefs in their collective power to produce desired results.
Measuring collective efficacy in two ways
Collective efficacy without self-efficacy…and vice versa
What affects collective efficaciousness?
Complex social machinery
“As globalization reaches ever deeper into people’s lives, a resilient sense of shared efficacy becomes critical to furthering common interests.” – Bandura (2000)
by Aria Isberto
Annie makes an appointment with psychologist Dr. Shaw.
Dr. Shaw: Please take a seat Annie. Tell me about what brought you into the office today.
Annie: (on the verge of tears) I just don’t know what’s wrong with me lately. I cry for no reason, my emotions are all over the place, I snap at people. It’s just so unlike me. I have never been so moody before. It’s extremely overwhelming.
Dr Shaw: Ok, before we try to get to the bottom of this, tell me a little bit about yourself.
Annie: Well, I’m twenty-two years old. I just graduated business school with a finance degree. I have a huge amount of school loans to pay off but I love what I do and I was very excited to start my first job. I was hired at Goldman Sachs, which was amazing. This is my first real job, and I was nervous but I want to be successful.
Dr. Shaw: I notice you said you were very excited. What happened once you started the job? Did you not love it as much as you wanted to?
Annie: My coworkers are great; they are very smart and motivated. They are all very nice but I sometimes do feel intimidated. Perhaps it’s because I am so new and younger than most of them. My boss, on the other hand, is impossible. He is just extremely difficult. He’s so controlling. He gives me an assignment and he will breathe down my neck every step of the way and ask me about every little detail a million times. He micro-manages everything and the minute something is not the way he wants it he starts yelling and threatening to fire me if I don’t get it right.
(Annie tears up again.)
Dr. Shaw: Lets stop talking about your job for a moment; I want to hear what your life is like outside of work.
Annie: (composing herself) I just moved out of my parent’s house. It’s exciting but also a little scary. I feel a bit guilty because I’m an only child and my mom was very upset when I moved. It’s also a lot harder than I realized to balance my finances, like rent and pay off my loans at the same time.
Dr. Shaw: I understand that your mother was upset that you moved, but is she trying to be supportive of your choice?
Annie: She helped me decorate my new apartment, but things have been a little strained lately because I want to talk to her about what a hard time I am having at work but every time I bring it up I just don’t get the support that I am looking for. She always asks if I am sure I made the right choice. She also says that finance is a tough career for a woman and perhaps I would have been better suited to being a nurse or a teacher, this way I would have more time for starting a family, even though I am not even seeing anyone.
Dr. Shaw: What would you like to hear from her?
Annie: I know I made the right choice, it’s just a lot to handle with my boss, and my move, and the finance, and I just want her to listen and to be there for me instead of questioning all of my life choices.
How can Dr. Shaw use Bandura’s theories to better understand Annie’s situation?
People’s beliefs in their self-efficacy influences how much effort they will invest in activities and how long they will persevere in the face of obstacles.
-Annie is experiencing several obstacles. She has started a new job with a very difficulty boss, she is adjusting to moving out of her parent’s home and living on her own, and she has debt that she needs to repay.
There are four contributing factors to self-efficacy: mastery experience, social modeling, social persuasion, and physical and emotional states.
-Annie has yet to master her work tasks. She just graduated from college, and she has no previous job experience. Her work is new to her. It is most likely complex and required to be completed quickly and as perfectly as possible, since it is a high profile firm there is probably a great deal of money and the firms reputation to their clients at stake. It will take Annie time to understand how to apply what she learned in school to the tasks that she is assigned. This lack of mastery decreases Annie’s self-efficacy.
-Annie feels less competent than her coworkers, so while they may succeed since she does not feel like their peer it does nothing to increase her self-efficacy or make her feel like she can thrive in the workplace as well.
-Two main persuaders in Annie’s life are her boss and her mother. Both are figures of authority. Annie’s boss is very hard to please and does not make her feel like she is capable of completing her work well or independently because it is constantly being criticized and micro-managed. Annie’s mother often questions whether she has the skills to succeed in finance and whether it is even the right career for a woman, which would make Annie question herself as well. Both of these persuaders would decrease Annie’s self-efficacy, especially since she is already struggling with her performance.
-Since Annie’s self-efficacy is already low, she is vulnerable and unsure of her ability to be successful and productive at work and to overcome her obstacles. The fact that Annie is so unsure in her own abilities to reach the desired outcome of being a successful financier is making her feel moody, short-tempered and resulting in her crying spells. This high emotional and physical arousal is only serving to lower Annie’s self-efficacy even further, especially since she is interpreting this response not as a normal reaction to many stressors but as the result of her feeling overwhelmed and pressured.
Understanding Annie with Bandura's Help
How can Bandura’s theories help us understand:
-Why Captain Swenson stayed with his men to fight against the Taliban attack?
-Why he returned to the firing zone to save his men?
-Why he is so openly speaking out against the military for not doing enough to aid his men?
-Despite the lack of aid from his commanding officers, Captain William Swenson fought through a Taliban attack and saved twelve of his fellow soldiers. His self-efficacy was clearly very high.
-Swenson had a great deal of military experience and due to his heroic actions he received the highest military award; factor that would clearly increase his self-efficacy.
-Since Swenson felt abandoned by his superiors their opinions no longer influenced his actions and he felt he was responsible for his life and the lives of the other ground soldiers. (No social persuasion to decrease self efficacy.)
-Swenson most likely completed rigorous training and stated his military career under the instruction of experienced officers that set an example for him of what he could also accomplish and increased his self-efficacy.
-Swenson’s situation in Afghanistan was life threatening and definitely capable of causing high arousal and low self efficacy. However, rather than perceiving the arousal as stress or fear, Swenson saw the situation as his duty to his fellow men and his country to be courageous and to fight the Taliban, as opposed to surrendering like they demanded of him.
-Bandura said all people are capable of two morally agentic abilities, to act humanely and to not act inhumanely. Selective moral disengagement occurs when a person actively disengages their self-regulation for moral conduct. Selective moral disengagement occurs via a “cognitive restructuring” of the inhumane acts into something justifiable.
*Captain Swenson, his behavior of throwing the hand grenade and killing Taliban members can he seen as inhumane, however it is justified in that the Taliban was attacking Swenson and the marines and Afghan National Troops that he was with.
*Swenson (as well as the US government that rewarded him for his service) saw his actions as heroic, since he was willing to potentially sacrifice his own life to protect his men.
Making Sense of a Description of an Individual Based on Bandura's Theories
by Neetha Laxmi
Born on December 4th, 1925; Alberta, Canada
Youngest & only son of six children
Parents were of Eastern European descent
Parents had no formal education,but placed high value
Self learning & Self experience in early life
Early Life of Albert Bandura
1949 – Bandura received his B.A. Degree from University of Bristish Columbia
1951 – M.A. Received from the University of Iowa
1951 – Ph.D. Received from University of Iowa under the direction of Arthur Benton
Early Education of Albert Bandura
Social Cognitive Theory started out as Social Learning Theory (SLT)
Comprehensive theory that includes motivational and self regulatory mechanisms
3 basic concept in understanding SLT
→ Mental Cognition
→ Change in behavior optional
Social Cognitive Theory
Walter Mischel and Albert Bandura - studied children's aggressive behavior
SLT concept with principles in observation learning & reinforcement
Predicted that children modeled the same behavior due to their parents
Findings resulted from Bobo-doll experiment
Social Cognitive Theory (cont'd)
SCT states that there are 3 characteristics that are unique to humans:
Vicarious consequences (model & imitate others)
Self-efficacy (self reflection)
Performance standards and moral conduct (ability to regulate one's own behavior)
Social Cognitive Theory (cont'd)
Level of motivation is an affective state
Actions are based on what a person believes
Beliefs defines what is learned
To learn the beliefs, they must
→ pay attention
→ be able to retain or remember
→ have the ability to reproduce the behavior
Social Cognitive Theory (cont'd)
It is controlling ones own behavior; it refers to the self capacity to alter its behavior
We use both reactive and proactive strategies to regulate our behavior
High levels of self-efficacy Regulate own behavior
WHAT IS SELF-REGULATION?
(a). Achievement situations – (quality, quantity, speed, or originality of our work)
(b). Interpersonal situations – (sociability or morality of our conduct)
2. Judgmental Process
(a). Personal standards
(b). External Standards
(a). Positive self-response
(b). Negative self-response
Internal Factors of Self-Regulation
1. Standard of Evaluation
Ex. By precept, we learn from parents and teachers the value of honest and friendly behavior; by direct experience, we learn to place more value on being warm and dry than on being cold and wet
2. External Rewards
Ex. Upon the completion of a goals, an artist may enjoy a cup of coffee after or break for lunch after finishing another work of art
External Factors of Self-Regulation
through Moral Agency
The Life &
1. Selective activation
- self-regulatory influences operate only if they are activated
2. Disengagement of internal control.
EX. Politicians frequently convince their constituents of the morality of war. Thus, wars are fought against “evil” people, people who deserve to be defeated or even annihilated.