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Smoking

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by

Sanam Ameen

on 31 July 2013

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Transcript of Smoking

The Effects of Smoking Wrinkles
Bad Breath
Stroke
Lung cancer
Depression
Alzheimer’s disease
Muscular degeneration (you go blind)
Oral cancer
Heart disease
Emphysema
Pancreatic cancer (3.1) Emphysema 30 percent of men and 19 percent of women around the world smoke.
One hundred thousand children under the age of 15 start smoking every day!
One of every ten deaths around the world is caused by a smoking-related disease. Cancer Cures Smoking...and Other Reasons Why to Not Puff Your Life Away Where Does the Smoke Go When You Inhale it?
The diaphragm starts your inhalation of smoke by contracting the muscles. Causing the chest cavity to become larger. The smoke enters the mouth or nose (nares) to the pharynx and travels down your throat (larynx)
it goes through the trachea, which is the tube that enters the chest cavity.
The trachea branches off into two smaller tubes known as the bronchi.
The bronchi branch into thousands of smaller tubes called the bronchioles.
At the end of each bronchiole are alveoli, tiny balloon-like sacs that are able to expand with air. (1.1)

The alveoli are surrounded by capillaries that are filled with blood. Because the air-blood barrier is very thin, the oxygen is able to pass easily into the blood. At the same time, the carbon dioxide, a waste product produced by the body, flows from the blood into the air in the alveoli. (2.3) Abdominal aortic aneurysms
Heartburn
Ulcers
Reproductive issues
Osteoporosis
Fibromyalgia
Asthma Smoking causes Emphysema and this a condition when the air sacs of the lungs are damaged and enlarged, causing breathlessness.
Air is abnormally present within the body tissues.
To treat emphysema one can:
Get surgery through lung volume reduction.
If severe, one can get a lung transplant.
Get therapy to improve breathlessness.
Get supplemental oxygen (3.2) Major Zones:

Conducting zone vs. Respiratory zone.
Conducting zone consists of the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles which form a continuous passageway for air to move in and out of the lungs.
Respiratory zones include the structures deep inside the lungs which is made up of respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, and alveoli.
The thin walls of the respiratory zones allow inhaled O2 to diffuse into the lungs and capillaries in exchange for CO2. (1.2) Smoking Can Destroy the Protective Mechanisms of the Respiratory System The nose acts as a filter preventing large particles of pollutants from entering the lungs.

If an irritant does enter the lung, it will get stuck in a thin layer of mucus (also called sputum or phlegm) that lines the inside of the breathing tubes.

This mucus is "swept up" toward the mouth by little hairs called cilia that line the breathing tubes.

Cilia move mucus from the lungs upward toward the throat to the epiglottis.

The epiglottis is the gate, which opens allowing the mucus to be swallowed.

Spitting up sputum is not "normal" and does not occur unless the individual has chronic bronchitis or there is an infection, such as a chest cold, pneumonia or an exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

A cough is the result of irritation to the bronchial tubes.

It can expel mucus from the lungs faster than cilia. (2.1) Primary Muscles involved in respiration Diaphragm Internal & External intercostals:

The first is the diaphragm which is a two part leaf muscle that pulls down and flattens, when this happens it also pulls down on the bronchials of the lungs and helps to straighten them out so that the air has a more laminar shot into the lungs.
At the same time the intercostal or muscles between the ribs constrict and pull the rib cage up and out.
Between these two sets of muscles they create something called negative pressure. This negative pressure is what allows the air to flow from your mouth and nose then all the way down into the lungs.
All this happens during inhalation, Exhalation is a passive maneuver by which all of the muscles relax and when they do so they create a small amount of positive pressure reversing the air flow out of the lungs. Respiratory center in the brain stem controls respiration by sending signals to the respiratory muscles making them contract relax.
The respiratory center involves:
The dorsal respiratory group
The medulla sends efferent impulses to the diaphragm and inspiratory intercostal muscles
The ventral respiratory group
have both inspiratory and expiratory neurons
The pneumotaxic center
in the pons--inhibit inspiration, regulating inspiratory volume and rate
The apneustic center
in the pons--produces abnormal, deep, prolonged inspiratory gasps Smoking can cause a downward spiral not only in your health, but also in your life!

Be smart, don't start!

And remember, there are much cooler ways to die. ;)

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