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Breathing Muscles

Anatomy & Physiology
by

Alison Ross

on 22 January 2014

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Transcript of Breathing Muscles

BREATHING
MUSCLES
LUNGS
LUNGS
HUMANS
ACTUALLY DON'T USE
LUNGS
TO INHALE OR EXHALE
WHAT MUSCLES DO
WE USE?
MOST IMPORTANT
Diaphragm
External Intercostal
LESS IMPORTANT
LESS IMPORTANT
-INHALE-
-EXHALE-
Scalene Muscles
Pectoralis Minor
Serratus Anterior
Sternocleidomastoid
Internal Oblique
External Oblique
Transversus Abdominis
Rectus Abdominis Muscles
ORIGINS
DIAPHRAGM
DIAPHRAGM: STERNAL HEAD
Xiphoid process of sternum
DIAPHRAGM: COSTAL HEAD
Inferior margin of ribs 7-12
DIAPHRAGM: VERTABRAL HEAD
Corpus of L1, transverse processes of L1-L5
ORIGINS
EXT.INTr.
EXTERNAL INTERCOSTAL
Inferior border of ribs as far back as posterior angles
-INHALE-
-EXHALE-
ORIGINS
ACCESSORY
SCALENE
Transverse processes from the cervical vertebrae of C2 to C7
Upper margins and outer surfaces of the third, fourth, and fifth ribs, near their cartilages and from the aponeuroses covering the intercostalis
PECTORALIS MINOR
SERRATUS ANTERIOR
Nine or ten slips from either the first to ninth ribs or the first to eighth ribs
STERNOCLEIDOMASTOID
Passes obliquely across the side of the neck
INTERNAL OBLIQUE
Anterior illiac crest, lateral half of inguinal ligament, and thoral columbar facia
External surfaces of ribs 5-12
EXTERNAL OBLIQUE
TRANSVERSUS ABDOMINIS
Anterior illiac crest, lateral half of inguinal ligament, thoral columbar facia, and cartilages on ribs 6-12
RECTUS ABDOMINIS
Pubic crest and symphasis pubis
Pectoralis Minor
PRIME MOVER:
DIAPHRAGM
Flattens when contracted; also increases intra-abdominal pressure
ACTIONS
EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL INTERCOSTALS
Elevate the ribs to aid in inspiration; depress the ribs to aid in forced expiration
MUSCLES OF THE ABDOMINAL WALL
Ompression and protection of abdominal contents; aid in flexion of vertebral column
(INTERNAL & EXTERNAL OBLIQUE, TRANSVERSUS ABDOMINIS, AND RECTUS ABDOMINIS)
SCALENE
Elevate the first rib and laterally flex the neck to the same side; the action of the posterior scalene is to elevate the second rib and tilt the neck to the same side.
PECTORALIS MINOR
Depresses the point of the shoulder, drawing the scapula inferior and medial, towards the thorax, and throwing its inferior angle posteriorly
SERRATUS ANTERIOR
Protracts and stabilizes scapula, assists in upward rotation
STERNOCLEIDOMASTOID
Tilts head to its own side and rotates it so the face is turned towards the opposite side
ANTAGONISTIC PAIR
DIAPHRAGM
& EXTERNAL INTr.
When the diaphragm relaxes, air is exhaled by elastic recoil of the lung and the tissues lining the thoracic cavity. Assisting this function with muscular effort (called forced exhalation) involves the internal intercostal muscles used in conjunction with the abdominal muscles, which act as an antagonist paired with the diaphragm's contraction.
SOURCE 1
SYNERGIST
EXAMPLES
Internal oblique and transversus abdominis
EXTERNAL OBLIQUE:
Internal oblique and external oblique
TRANSVERSUS ABDOMINUS:
External intercostal muscles
INTERNAL INTERCOSTAL:
(AND VICE VERSA)
FIXATOR
Stabilizes vertebral border of scapla to thoracic cage
EXAMPLE
SERRATUS ANTERIOR:
INJURIES
Respiratory muscle injury may result from excessive loading due to a decrease in respiratory muscle strength, an increase in the work of breathing, or an increase in the rate of ventilation. Other conditions such as hypoxemia, hypercapnia, aging, decreased nutrition, and immobilization may potentiate respiratory muscle injury. Potential mechanisms which may contribute to respiratory muscle injury include high levels of intracellular calcium-activated degradative enzymes, non-uniformity of stresses and strains, plasma membrane disruptions, and activation of the inflammatory process
SOURCE 3
SOURCE 1:
"GetBodySmart - An Online Human Anatomy and Physiology Texbook." GetBodySmart: Interactive Tutorials and Quizzes On Human Anatomy and Physiology. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 Jan. 2014. http://www.getbodysmart.com/index.htm
SOURCE 2:
"SELECTED SKELETAL MUSCLES OF THE HUMAN BODY." SELECTED SKELETAL MUSCLES OF THE HUMAN BODY. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 Jan. 2014. http://people.ucalgary.ca/~rosenber/SelectedMuscles.html
SOURCE 3:
"Result Filters." National Center for Biotechnology Information. U.S. National Library of Medicine, n.d. Web. 09 Jan. 2014. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9543350
WORKS CITED
EXAMPLE
ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY
ALISON ROSS
MUSCLES USED FOR BREATHING
TREATMENT
Home ventilation with nasal or tracheal intermittent positive pressure only at night results in improved chronic hypoventilation during daytime spontaneous ventilation in patients with respiratory muscle issues. This treatment improves the quality of life of these people and can be lifesaving.
SOURCE 4:
"Result Filters." National Center for Biotechnology Information. U.S. National Library of Medicine, n.d. Web. 09 Jan. 2014. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9543350
SOURCE 4
PSST... THEY'RE NOT EVEN MUSCLES
Full transcript