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Prenatal Screening

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by

Modupe Akinmade

on 17 February 2014

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Transcript of Prenatal Screening

Cons of Genetic Screening
Health Risks of prenatal screening
Require fluid sample from the fetus or ultrasound
Invasive procedure
Can lead to miscarriages if mistakes occur
Pros
-Gives mothers 35+ to determine any genetic mutations/problems during gestation period.


-The chances of non-disjunction is greater in women 35 years or older

Common Prenatal screening procedures
Prenatal Screening: Ethics
History of Eugenics
Galton- 19th-20th centuries
positive eugenics- proposed that the fittest individuals should mate to produce offspring with "good genes"
negative- trying to prohibit those with unfit genes from mating
led to segregation and sterilization
Differences from Eugenics
stems from eugenics
negative eugenics interferes with mating, but...
genetic screening can lead to interference with already existing traits
immoral
Modern Era
can screen for genetic abnormalities
referred to as gene therapy
stems from eugenics
soon people will be able to alter either undesirable or abnormal traits
Still a new process- room for errors
Complications lead to others resources
Unhappy results or unexpected plans they must continue for the fetus
In the future, this can lead to parents altering their fetus' genetic makeup. There’s a difference between trying to keep the baby healthy and removing abnormalities to perfect the identity.
First Trimester
1-12 weeks
Second Trimester
13-28 weeks
Third Trimester
29-40 weeks
- Fetal Monitoring
-tocodynamometer

-used to perform (NT) exams

-Determine sex of baby

-monitor development of conceptus
-common procedure to benefit mother and child
Two maternal blood test
-Test mothers blood for 2 specific substances
-hCG
-PAPP-A

-Abnormal levels associated with increased risk for chromosomal abnormality
Ultrasound test
Alpha-fetoprotein screening (AFP)
-If abnormal tests from first trimester occur- further test like AFP blood testing would be recommended.
amniocentesis

An amniocentesis is generally offered to women between the 15th and 20th weeks of pregnancy who are at increased risk for chromosome abnormalities, such as women who are over age 35 years of age at delivery, or those who have had an abnormal maternal serum screening test, indicating an increased risk for a chromosomal abnormality or neural tube defect.
**Blood testing is common for general population not just pregnant..
amniocentesis-related miscarriage rate is 0.06%, or one in 1,600 pregnancies

-Many genetic abnormalities can be diagnosed before birth. Your doctor or midwife may recommend genetic testing during the pregnancy if you or your partner have a family history of genetic disorders and/or you have had a fetus or baby with a genetic abnormality.
Pros
Screening the fetus for gender allows the parents to have peace of mind about what they are having.
If the child does end up having a genetic disorder/abnormality, it allows the parents to plan and prepare ahead of time. It allows them to save money, and to become mentally and emotionally prepared.
Prenatal genetic screening also reduces the number of invasive diagnostic tests performed
Abortion
Adoption
The Merack Manuel :Prenatal Diagnostic Testing
Full transcript