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Transcript of G542 Studies
(OCR) Background. Background. Background. Background. Background. Background. Background. Loftus and Palmer looked at the way in which leading questions are used in court and how they may affect the answer of the person. Interest in the theories of the development of autism, and whether it was lack of theory of
mind or other factors such as environment or
bad parenting. Pavlov's Dogs (Classical Conditioning.)
Thorndike Cats (Operant Conditioning.) Hans father was a Freudian Follower and was interested in his work, he was concerned about his "phobic" son. Based on the Stanford Prison Experiment by Zimbardo (1981). Repeating the experiment but very much more ethically. Kitty Genovese murder.
38 people were aware of her calls for help but none acted upon it. Operation on HM who had 2/3 of his hippocampus removed due to severe seizures.
Resulted in him lacking the ability to convert to long term memories. Aim. To identify whether a leading question can alter the estimated speed of a car crash. Exp. 1 Exp. 2 Aim. To identify if a leading question can alter the memory of an event. Hypothesis. That the memories perception of speed would be altered depending on the verb used in the leading question. IV DV Verb used.
'Hit' 'Smashed' 'Collided' 'Bumped' 'Contacted' The estimated Speed. General. Method. Design. Duration. Laboratory Experiment. Independent Measures. Snapshot. Participants. 5 groups of 9 students. American College Students. Procedure. Watch 7 clips of car crashes.
In groups of 5 answer the questionnaire.
Each group with a different verb in the leading question. Findings. 'smashed' - 40.8
'contacted' - 31.8 Conclusion. A leading question can alter perception of speed. Hypothesis. That the use of a leading question with different verb results in the estimation of speed being altered. IV. Verb used.
Whether they were asked about seeing glass. DV. Whether they remembered seeing glass in the accident or not. General. Method. Laboratory Experiment. Design. Duration. Independent Measures. Snapshot. Participants. 3 groups of 150 students American College Students. Procedure. Watch 7 video clips
Answer a questionnaire
2 with leading question on speed and the control without. ('hit' 'smashed')
Reconvene after a week.
Answer a second questionnaire.
All leading questions about glass. Findings. 'Smashed ' 16
Control 6 Conclusions. The use of a leading question can cause the memory of an event to be altered. In this case also having a leading question about speed is more likely to alter the memory than not having one. Aim. Primary. Secondary. To show that adults with Autism lack theory of mind. To see whether females with
Autism performed better on tests
for theory of mind than males. IV DV Autism/Aspergers, Tourettes, Normals. (Naturally occurring.) Performance on the ToM tests. General. Method. Design. Duration. Quasi - Experiment. Independent Measures Design. Snapshot Participants. A/AA
25f Procedure. Gender Recognition Test.
Emotion Recognition Test.
Eyes Test. Gender and Emotion tasks to rule out lack of basic recognition. Findings. A/AA.
21.8 These averages of the correct answers for the 25 images, show that there is no significant difference between T and N, and Females performed better than Males. Background. 17 years of studying the Chimps and teaching them how to use the lexigram board to communicate. Aim. To study the language acquisition of two Pygmy Chimps over a 17 month period compared to that of
two Common Chimps. IV DV The two different species of chimp (Pygmy and Common) (naturally occurring.) The amount of language that they acquired over the time
they were observed. General. Method. Design. Duration. Quasi - Experiment. Independent Measures Longitudinal.
(17 months, 10 years total) Participants. 2 Pygmy Chimps:
Mulika (3yrs) 2 Common Chimps:
Sherman (10yrs) Procedure. Outside - A laminate Lexigram Board.
Indoors - Battery powered with voice synthesiser
Also 100 ASL gestures.
The boards were not suitable for Austin and Sherman because of their broad gestures. Results. 2530 correct combinations.
265 imitated symbols. Findings. K and M comprehend the lexigrams with far more ease than A and S.
K and M were far more able to comprehend spoken English.
K and M could be far more specific than A and S. eg. diff juice and coke.
K could make request involving others. A and S never did. Background. Samuel and Bryant wanted to test Piaget's theory that children couldn't conserve to see if this was true or if it was comprehension of the task that prevented it. Aim. To test to see whether a wrong answer was given when a child was asked the same question twice. Hypothesis. That being asked the same question a second time would cause the children to give an incorrect answer. IV DV Age (naturally occurring)
Condition (Piaget, OJ, Fixed)
Material (Volume, Mass, Number). Response
% of correct answers per age and per condition. General. Method. Design. Duration. Laboratory Experiment. Independent Measures. Snapshot. Participants. 252 children - Taunton, Devon. Aged 5 - 8.5 Procedure. Each child does each material test 4 times, but only in one condition. (Independent Measures.) Findings. One Judgement.
1.6 (Mean across all ages.) Conclusions. Older children are better at conservation, but all are better in the one judgement condition. Aim. To see if behaviours learnt in one situation can be generalised and transfered to other situations. Hypothesis. 1) Same sex models would have higher imitation.
2) Boys would imitate more than Girls.
3) Viewing aggressive will result in imitation.
4) observing will cause an increase in general aggressiveness. IV DV Sex of Child.
Sex of Model.
Behaviour of Model. Behavioural response of Child. General. Method. Design. Duration. Observation. Independent Measures Design. Snapshot. Participants. 72 children. 24
aggresive model. 24
non- aggresive model. NO model. Male Male Female Female 6 Boys
6 Girls 6 Boys
6 Girls 6 Boys
6 Girls 6 Boys
6 Girls 12 Boys
12 Girls 3-5yr olds from
Stanford University. Procedure. Watch the model (or no model)
Agression Arousal (taking away toys)
Test for delayed imitation. Findings. Observing aggressive behaviour increses imitation of that behaviour, observing non-aggressive behaviour results in less aggressive behaviours being exhbited. Conclusions. Watching an aggressive model legitimises the behaviour that they are exhibiting.
Boys are more prone to imitation of aggressive behaviour than girls. Aim. To report on the phobia of horses developed by a 5 year old boy. General. Method. Duration Overt, Unstructured, Participant Observation. (Case Study) Longitundinal. Participant. 5 Year old German boy, named Hans.
Lived with his parents and sister Hannah.
Developed a phobia of horses at the age of 5. The study contained information from Hans aged 3-5yrs. Procedure. Hans father transcribed conversations that he had with his son, initiating converstations and asking about Hans dreams and fantasies.
This was collated and sent to Freud. He did however, visit the family once during th study. Conclusions. Freud concluded that Hans proved his theories on child development, particularly that of the Oedipus Complex.
Also that the child was abnormal i that he could resolve inner problems that would, in most, go unsolved. Background. The obedience shown by the German citizens under Hitler's rule i WWII. Aim. To see the level of obedience shown when asked to administer electric shocks by a legitimate authority figure. Hypothesis. That only 3% of the population would go to 450V when instructed by a legitimate authority figure. IV DV None. Level of obedience. Measured by the voltage administered. General. Method. Duration. Design. Controlled Observation. None. Snapshot. Participants. 40 males.
From Newhaven. Self-Selecting Sample. Procedure. Rigged hat pick of teacher or student.
Student seen to be strapped in.
Ask questions, if wrong shocked.
Recorded responses played.
Teacher either follows to 450V or insists upon stopping. Findings. a) Participants show extreme nervousness, sweating and biting nails.
b) Sighs of relief, moping brow, cigarettes.
c) Participants believed it to be real. Conclusions. Obedience is not dispositional to nationality, only situational. Aim. Provide data on interactions between unequal power groups.
Identify with group (and) accept or challenge intergroup inequalities.
Role of social, organisational and clinical factors in group behaviour.
Develop practical and ethical guidlines for social psychology IV. DV. - belief in permeability.
- belief in social divisions.
- belief in possibility of change. - social variables.
- organisational variables.
- clinical variables.
- prison design.
- saliva General. Method. Design. Duration. Laboratory. Repeated Measure. Time Series. Participants. 15 participants, male.
Psychologically and physically healthy.
Medical and Character references.
Independently assessed. Procedure. Self-selected by newspaper advertisement.
Tests and references --> independent assessment.
Guard away weekend --> meet facility.
Prisoners 1 by 1, heads shaved, replacement clothes. Findings. Compliance due to group permeability.
Unpredicted guard behaviour.
Indecisive, relatively passive.
Trade Unionist caused commune. Conclusions. Group failure is caused by each individual and the fact that we only identify with a group when necessary. Aim. Whether the responsibility of the victim and their race would affect whether they were helped by the public, and how long it took. Also how the size of a group affects it and modelling. IV. DV. - Type.
- Model Presence.
- No. Bystanders. - Time for first help.
- Total no helped.
- Gender, Race, and Location.
- Time after model. General. Method. Duration. Design. Field Experiment. None. Snapshot. (1 time) Participants. 4450 people.
45% Black, 55% White.
43 to a cart
8 to the critical area.
11am - 3pm 4 Confederates.
2 Female, 2 Male.
Women observe, Men victim or model. Procedure. Drunk/Ill collapses.
Model helps of not.
Model helps early or late.
2 female observers record time, race and location. Findings. 10% of first helpers were female.
Same race assist more when victim is drunk. Conclusions. Same race more likely when drunk victim.
Men help as there is less cost to them.
Diffusion of responsibility results in no difference in time before helping no matter the group size. Aim. To find out what differences there were in the hippocampal volume of a normal against a taxi driver. Hypothesis. That the plasticity of the brain will result in the change in the hippocampus due to experience and learning. Brain Scans perfomed using MRI on the taxi drivers.
VBM and pixel counting carried out. (both by a blind counter, so as to prevent bias) Procedure. 16 male, right-handed taxi-drivers.32-62 yrs old. Medically, Neurologically, and Psychiatrically healthy.
50 Control participants all same as Taxi-Drivers, but not taxi-drivers.Donated their scans to science. Participants. Findings. Conclusions. That the more experience the taxi-driver had the higher the volume of grey matter in the posterior hippocampus, and the lower the anterior volume. Cab Drivers have significantly larger amounts of grey matter in the posterior, opposite for the Control.
Correlation between experience and the volume of grey matter. Background. Background. Previous research into the lateralisation of functions in the brain. Aim. To study the functions of seperated and independent hemispheres. Hippocampal Volume. IV. Taxi-Driver or not. (naturally occuring) DV. General. General. Method. Design. Duration. Quasi - Experiment. Independent Measures. Snapshot. Participants. 11 participants with Corpus Collosum split. Man - 2 seizures a week for 10 years
after no seizures and reduction in medication. Woman - mid 30's
no seizures in the 4 years since operation. Procedure.
Findings. Background. Aserinsky and Kleitman noted correlation in REM sleep with dreams when waking. Dement and Kleitman aimed to investigate further. Aim. To see the recall abilities of participants during NREM and REM sleep, and whether they could estimate their sleep time.
Also to see if eye movement corresponded to dream content. Hypotheses. 1. More likely to report dreams in REM sleep than NREM. Method. Quasi - Experiment. Design. Duration. Independent Measures. Snapshot. Hypothesis 1. IV. DV. REM/NREM awakening. Ability to recall dreams. Hypothesis 2. IV. DV. 5/15 minutes sleep time. (REM) Ability to estimate the time correctly. Hypothesis 3. IV. DV. Natural, dream content. Correlatin between dream and content. General. Method. Design. Duration. Laboratory Experiment. Repeated Measures. Snapshot. Participants. 7 Males, 2 Females. 5 in depth --> 2x 2 nights.
--> 2x 1 night. Procedure. Hypothesis 2. Woken 5/15 minutes into REM
tell dream + estimate time slept. Findings. 2 Cor InCor 5mins.
15mins. 45 47
6 13 Conclusions. REM more likely to remember
Majority can estimate times.
Positive Correlation. Background. The DSM-IV and the number of Type 1/Type 2 errors comitted. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Version IV. Study 1. Study 2. One Visual Field.
Appear in left draw with left, pick with left.
Appear in right say and pick with right. One Visual Field:
Image in RH could be drawn, and picked with right hand.
LH could be named.
Both Visual Fields:
Say in LH but unaware of image in RH.
LH could be drawn.
Could say what had been drawn when LH saw the image. Finding. Procedure. Tactile: (not seen)
Object in hand asked to verbally
Object in hand then asked to find in bag. Object in hand then asked to find on table.
Placed in hand asked to identify on screen. Procedure. Findings. Right Hemisphere:Object left eye (RH) asked to pick out similar objects.Mathematical problem to left eye.Geometric shapes to both another image in left eye at same time, asked if saw anything other than geometric shape. Procedure. Tactile: No issue identifying when in right hand, in left they had no conscious awareness of it. Would be able to find it with left hand in bag.Lateralisatin means that even though they are unaware of its presence, sensory input allows for identification. One Visual Field. Tactile. Right Hemisphere. Findings. Able to pick out semantically similar objects when seen in the left eye.
When seeing something in the left eye they could recognise the image and its connotations but were not aware they had seen it. Both Visual Fields.
Say and pick with left.
Draw and pick with right. Procedure. Findings. Both Visual Fields:
Say in LH but unaware of image in RH.
LH could be drawn.
Could say what had been drawn when LH saw the image. Both Visual Fields. Aim. To see if those who are sane can be misdiagnosed (Type 1/False Positive). General. Method. Design. Duration. Covert, Participant Observation. None. Semi - Longitudinal
7 - 52 days. Participants. 8 pseudopatients.
3 Female 12 Hospitals + Staff. Procedure. Interview.
Hollow, Thud, Dull.
Then act as normal.
Request when you'll be presented. Findings. 7 - 52 Days
1 Manic Depressive. Conclusions. The DSM-IV is not accurate in diagnosing Schizophrenia as it doesn't distinguish between other people's symptoms. Aim. To see if the insane can be diagnosed as sane (Type 2/False Negative) General. Method. Design. Duration. Covert Observation. None. Semi - Longitudinal.
3 Months. Participants. 12 Hospitals + Staff.
193 insane patients. Procedure. 193 Insanes go to interview.
See the number of Type 2 error's. Findings. 19 patients - 1 Psychiatrist + 1 Staff.
23 patients - 1+Psychiatrist.
41 patients - 2+Staff. Conclusions. The DSM-IV is not accurate in diagnosing Schizophrenia as it doesn't distinguish between other people's symptoms. Background. Eve White was referred to Thigpen because of severe blinding headaches and blackouts. Aim. To provide an account of an individual suffering from MPD. General. Method. Design. Duration. Case Study Observation. None. Longitudinal. Participant. Eve White. First Alter:
May look sad Eve Black. Second Alter:
Clothing. Jane. Third Alter:
More responsible that EB.
More interesting than EW. Procedure. 100+ Hours of Interviews.
EEG Readings. Findings. Conclusion. No explanation, more research required. EW. IQ.
Human Figures. EB. J. 110
OCD Traits. 104
N/A Background. Waegner (1988) thought that gambling is to do with different though processess. Aim. To examine the factors and variables relating to cognition in gambling. Hypothesis. 1) No difference in skill level.
2) More irrationals than regulars
3) Regulars report more skill.
4) Think aloud takes longer. IV. DV. None were manipulated. Behaviours
Verbalisations. General. Method. Duration. Design. Observation. Independent Measures. Snapshot. Participants. 60. 44 Male
15 NReg 16 Female
15 NReg All University Students. Procedure. Given £3 asked to stay on the machines for 60 gambles, they could keep any return or continue playing. Findings. Reg - 8 a minute.
NReg - 6 a minute. Reg aloud -
lower win rate (time between wins)
More time on initial stake. No Sig Diff I total winnings aloud or not. Conclusion. Difference between Reg and NReg is how they deal cognitively with the idea of skill in relation to fruit machines. 3. Posititve correlation between eye movement and dream content. 2. They will be able to estimate the time that they were sleeping. Procedure. 6 x random no table
1 3xREM + 3xNREM
1 randon told REM 152 39
11 149 Rec NRec REM
NREM Hypothesis 1. I Rec Nrec REM.
NREM. 152 39
11 149 Hypothesis 2. Hypothesis 3. Woken after 1minute of a pattern and asked dream content. Procedure. V
L-None. Findings. 3