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DEVELOPMENT: Infancy to Old Age

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Joelie McCrary

on 1 November 2017

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Transcript of DEVELOPMENT: Infancy to Old Age

Infancy
DEVELOPMENT:
Infancy to Old Age

the period of babyhood
Childhood
the time between infancy and adolescence
Adolescence
Adulthood
and Aging

Adulthood: when you socially and legally become an adult
Perceptual Abilities
Soon after birth (a few days)...

Visual Abilities
Visual perception proceeds rapidly
Infant Visual Stimulation
Communication and language
2 theories of development
Stages of Language Acquisition
3 months -1 year:
Babbling
The Wug Test
Physical Development
By 1 year: will triple and height will double
Memory and Problem Solving
Increase with age
At age 2:
Social, Cultural, & Emotional Development
Pre-school and School-Aged:
Parenting Styles
according to Diana Baumrind
1. Authoritarian
"Too Hard"
2. Permissive
"Too Soft"
Permissive Parenting
Based on this video, what might Permissive Parenting be?
3. Authoritative
"Just Right"
4. Uninvolved
"Not there"
What styles do you see?
Cultural Differences in Parenting
- U.S. values independence instead of community cooperation
and
Emerging adulthood

Physical Development
Noticeable physical changes in body shape (females)
Identity Development
James Marcia's Theory of Identity Statuses
Identity Achievement
Explored and Found Stage
Identity Diffusion
Not looking and don't care
Ex: student in college does not have a major and is not concerned about finding one
Foreclosure
No need to look I know what I want stage
- a commitment is made without exploring options
Moratorium
having vague or absent commitments causing anxiety or feeling of crisis
- causing them to actively pursue an identity
Role of Family and Peers
1. Family = Most formative in developing...
Physical Changes
1. Skin
Don't Grow Old
BBC Documentary
Many of these physical changes can be compensated by...
1. Physical Exercise
Cognitive Changes
- poorer memory but maintain intellect
Social, Cultural, and Emotional Issues
1. Intimacy and Long-term Relationships
Personality and Aging
- Mid-life crisis isn't not completely supported - transitions happen all throughout life
Death and Dying
Elisabeth Kubler-Ross 5 stages

http://www.hulu.com/watch/33383
-recognize their mother's voice

-distinguish between their language and foreign languages

-prefers sweeter tastes
1 month: develop color perception
- likes bright/bold and patterns
4 months: focus on near and far
- coordination between both eyes
4-5 months: recognition of 2 & 3D
7 months: recognize facial expressions (smiles and frowns)
1. Nativist theory (Noam Chomsky) - children born with innate ability to acquire language and grammar
(
NATURE
)
2. Learning Theory: language acquisition depends on the process of imitation and reinforcement
(
NURTURE
)
1 year:
small words
18 months:
short phrases called "
telegraphic

speech
"
3 years:
uses grammar but makes a lot of errors called "
overgeneralization
" (Ex: runned)
5 years: uses
basic language rules - does not fully understand all grammatical rules
From 3-13: grow about 3 inches per year
Preschooler: can process 2 to 3 chunks of information in short-term memory
5 year old: 4 chunks in short-term
7 year old: 5 chunks in short-term
- more independent
- play more with toys than friends
- become more comfortable playing with friends
- Learn more in-depth games
-Develop politeness
- Regulate emotional displays
- Modify others' behavior
demandingness
responsiveness
expect obedience with little emotional support
-rigid and harsh
responsiveness
seldom enforces consistent rules
gives little direction but a lot of emotional support
demandingness
responsiveness
firm but not harsh
responsive to needs but not indulgent
sets limits but is flexible in certain situations
demandingness
responsiveness
little interest in their children both regulating behavior and providing emotional support
-Countries valuing high respect of elders promote more authoritarian parenting styles
- Baumrind's parenting styles are based on American cultural norms
- Puberty to legal adulthood (about 12-18)
Noticeable physical changes in height (boys)
Girls enter puberty sooner than boys
-proposed that people go through a search for
identity
adolescences often have not fully committed to an identity
- saw what's out there
- considered alternatives
- decided upon identity
- may develop an identity passed down by parents without question (ex: political party)
2. Peers = Most formative in developing...
- close friends
- peripheral relationships
- bullying
- reaching sexual maturity and legal maturity
-20s to 90s and beyond
2. Body build
3. Muscle Mass
4. Joints
5. Aerobic Capacity
6. Hormone Changes
7. Nervous System
8. Vision Changes
9. Hearing Changes
10. Balance
2. Mental Activity
3. Regulation of Diet
4. Avoidance of "bad habits"
- complex decisions may decrease (affects driving abilities)
- more exercise is linked to better memory and mental capacities in adults
- Dementia and Alzheimers
- Adult brain plasticity: studies shows that video games and mental exercises help memory and reasoning in daily life
2. Families
3. Jobs and Career Development
-Socioemotional Selectivity Theory
-people gain greater ability to manage emotions and cope with stress as they age
- When endings occur, people try to focus on relationships that are positively fulfilling
1. Denial
2. Anger
3. Bargaining
4. Depression
5. Acceptance
Simpsons Episode - Poison Blowfish Sushi (start at 38 sec)
If you make someone think they are younger, will their bodies act younger?
The Adolescent Brain
What can we learn about the adolescent brain?
Watch a little bit of
Kid's Say the Darndest Things
Emerging Adulthood
Not an adolescent and not yet a fully independent adult
Not yet settled stage
Late teens to mid twenties
With time, adulthood is being delayed and childhood is ending sooner
sense of "
self
"
Forming an Identity
adolescents may try out different "selves" over time
will also form a
social identity
- may develop without knowing
Ex: gender identity, team identity, american-ness
Develop
secondary sex characteristics
during
puberty

sexual maturation
females:
hips and breasts
males
: deepening voice and facial hair
Women:
menopause
(around age 50)

Men: decrease in testosterone levels and sperm count
- early adulthood is the peak time for learning and memory
Our
social clock
, may tell us when the "right" time is to experience a new life event
Discipline
Responsibility
Charitableness
Interacting with authority
Cooperation
Obtaining popularity
Style of Interaction
Babbling at 4 months
Babies...
Psychological Infant Development
Instinct and Attachment
Infant development is a process shaped by the interplay of
instinct
and
attachment
to the caregiver

Caregivers help infants develop emotional ques
Ex: Visual Cliff
Security
In order to develop properly, infants need to feel comfort/love in order to feel secure.
Ex: Harlow's Monkeys
Physical Touch and Intimacy
- Touch is absolutely essential for proper development
- neglected infants without physical touch suffer severe developmental disabilities
- Rene Spitz 1952: Study on Emotional Deprivation of Infant

-Psychogenic Disease: development of a physical illness from an emotional cause
Psychological Development in Infancy into Childhood
Jean Piaget
How children learn about the world
Schema
: a concept or category about the world
Assimilation
: The tendency to interpret new experiences in terms of existing schemas
Accommodation
: Changes in schemas to incorporate information from experiences
Childhood Development
Instant vs. Delayed Gratification
ability to delay gratification increases with age
Ex: Stanford Marshmallow Experiment
Piaget's Stages of Development
Sensorimotor Stage
Birth - 18 months
Preoperational Stage
18 months to 7 years
Concrete Operational
7 - 11 years
Formal Operational
11 - adulthood
Child understands the world in actions, not words
During this time they develop...
Object Permanence:
understanding that objects continue to exist even after they cannot be seen
Egocentricism
: can only see things from one (or their own) perspective
Cannot understand
Conservation
: understanding that properties such as volume, mass, and number are still the same even if the object changes form
- no abstract or hypothetical thinking
- understands
conservation
-
egocentricism

is eliminated
-

understands

reversibility:
once an object changes form it can go back to the previous state and still remain the same
- developing abstract thought
Deductive Reasoning

Ex: algebra
- can apply rules to solve abstract problems
- develops logic and reasoning
Can you do this formal operation?
The Wason Card Test

http://www.philosophyexperiments.com/wason/
Lev Vygotsky's
Theory of Childhood Development
children learn through social interaction with others
Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)

Children learn best at this stage
Scaffolding
strategies or tools used by parents/teachers to help learners complete difficult tasks independently
area of knowledge just beyond their abilities
just between what the leaner can do on their own and what they cannot do on their own
John Bowlby's Attachment Theory
- believed that children develop important relationships with their caregivers that influence their development
- Look over the Attachment Styles Chart
Secure Attachment
: caregiver responds quickly and positively to child's needs
Insecure Attachment
: caregiver is either unresponsive, inconsistently responsive, or abusive toward child
Mary Ainsworth's Strange Situation
- Ainsworth was a student of Bowlby's
Testing
stranger anxiety
will show child's behavior toward caregiver
Secure Attachment
: Child will be distressed when parent leaves but comforted upon return
Insecure attachment
: Child will not be comforted when parent returns and may punish or turn away from them
- Developed an experimental situation devised by Ainsworth made to assess a child's attachment style
demandingness
overly responsive to the child's demands and desires
Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Learning
as cognitive abilities increase, so making moral judgments
Postconventional
Decisions about right and wrong are based on the notion of moral relativity
Preconventional
Right and wrong are thought of in terms of their immediate effects of pleasure vs. pain
Conventional
- Law and Order Stage
people fall into 3 categories when developing sense of right and wrong
- The Heinz Dilemma Activity
- no moral principles are considered
- Moral decisions are made in terms of laws or general rules about what is right and what is wrong
- a law should be violated if that law violates basic principles of valuing human life
Erik Erikson's Stages of Development
believed as you develop you go through changes in personality that are brought on by a crisis
Erikson Development Theory
Erikson believed that one could move down to any stage at any time depending on their life circumstances
Full transcript