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DEVELOPMENT: Infancy to Old Age

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Joelie McCrary

on 6 November 2016

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Transcript of DEVELOPMENT: Infancy to Old Age

Infancy to Old Age

the period of babyhood
the period between infancy and adolescence
and Aging

Adulthood: when you socially and legally become an adult
Perceptual Abilities
Within a few days of birth infants will be able to...

Visual Abilities
Visual perception proceeds rapidly
Infant Visual Stimulation
Communication and language
2 theories of development
Stages of Language Acquisition
3 months -1 year:
The Wug Test
Physical Development
By 1 year the child will triple his or her body weight and double their height
Memory and Thinking
With age, child become better with tasks involving memory and problem solving
-become less easily distracted
At age 2:
Social, Cultural, & Emotional Development
Pre-school and School-Aged:
Diana Baumrind's 4 categories of childrearing
1. Authoritarian
"Too Hard"
2. Permissive
"Too Soft"

Permissive Parenting
Based on this video, what might Permissive Parenting be?
3. Authoritative
"Just Right"
4. Uninvolved
"Not there"
Describe Red and Kitty Forman's parenting styles.
Take notes on each. Then, determine their styles.
What styles do you see?
Cultural Differences in Parenting
- U.S. values independence whereas other places (Asian and Latin American countries ) focus on community cooperation
Emerging adulthood
Physical Development
Noticeable physical changes in body shape (females)
Identity Development
James Marcia's Theory of Identity Statuses
Identity Achievement
Explored and Found Stage
Identity Diffusion
Not looking and don't care
Ex: student in college does not have a major and is not concerned about finding one
No need to look I know what I want stage
- a commitment is made without exploring options
having vague or absent commitments causing anxiety or feeling of crisis
- causing them to actively pursue an identity
Role of Family and Peers
1. Family = Most formative in developing...
Physical Changes
1. Skin
Don't Grow Old
BBC Documentary
Many of these physical changes can be compensated by...
1. Physical Exercise
Cognitive Changes
- poorer memory but maintain intellect
Social, Cultural, and Emotional Issues
1. Intimacy and Long-term Relationships
Personality and Aging
- Mid-life crisis isn't not completely supported - transitions happen all throughout life
Death and Dying
Elisabeth Kubler-Ross 5 stages

- infant derives from the Latin "infans" meaning the inability to speak
-recognize their mother's voice

-distinguish between their language and foreign languages

-show a preference for sweeter tastes
1 month: develop color perception
-have preference for bold colors and patterns
4 months: focus on near and far objects
- develop coordination between both eyes
4-5 months: recognition of 2 & 3D objects
7 months: recognize differences in facial expressions (smiles and frowns)
1. Noam Chomsky: Nativist theory - children born with innate ability to acquire language and grammar
2. Learning Theory: language acquisition depends on the process of imitation and reinforcement
1 year:
short simple words
18 months:
short phrases called "telegraphic speech"
3 years:
begin using grammar but make a lot of errors called "overgeneralization" (runned instead of ran)
5 years:
know basic language rules - do not fully understand all grammatical rules
From 3-13: children gain about 3 inches in height every year
-other parts of the body don't grow proportionally at the same rate
(ex: head grows at slower rate)
Preschooler: can process 2 to 3 chunks of information in short-term memory
5 year old: 4 chunks of info in short-term memory
7 year old: 5 chunks of info in short-term
- develop more independence from family
- play more with toys than friends
- as they get older they become more comfortable playing with friends
- Learn more in-depth games
-Develop politeness
- Regulate emotional displays
- Modify one anothers' behavior
High demandingness
Low responsiveness
-expect obedience with little emotional support
-rigid and harsh
Low demandingness
High responsiveness
- Parent is overly responsive to the child's demands and desires
- Seldom enforce consistent rules
- Give little direction but a lot of emotional support
Moderate demandingness
Moderate responsiveness
-firm but not harsh
-responsive to needs but not indulgent
-sets limits but is flexible in certain situations
Low demandingness
Low responsiveness
-show little interest in their children both regulating behavior and providing emotional support
-Some countries value the respect of elders this promotes more authoritarian parenting styles
-The 4 child rearing categories are based on American cultural norms
- Latin "adolescere" - to grow up
- Puberty to legal adulthood (about 12-18)
Noticeable physical changes in height (boys)
Girls enter puberty sooner than boys
African American girls tend to enter puberty sooner than Caucasian girls
-proposed that people go through a search for
-typically during the move toward full adulthood
-adolescence have not committed to an identity
- they begin to decide their priorities, values, and commitments
- saw what's out there
- considered alternatives
- decided upon identity
- may develop an identity passed down by parents without question (ex: political party)
2. Peers = Most formative in developing...
- close friends
- peripheral relationships
- bullying
- reaching sexual maturity and legal maturity
-20s to 90s and beyond
2. Body build
3. Muscle Mass
4. Joints
5. Aerobic Capacity
6. Hormone Changes
7. Nervous System
8. Vision Changes
9. Hearing Changes
10. Balance
2. Mental Activity
3. Regulation of Diet
4. Avoidance of "bad habits"
- complex decisions may decrease (affects driving abilities)
- more exercise is linked to better memory and mental capacities in adults
- Dementia and Alzheimers
- Adult brain plasticity: studies shows that video games and mental exercises help memory and reasoning in daily life
2. Families
3. Jobs and Career Development
-Socioemotional Selectivity Theory
-people gain greater ability to manage emotions and cope with stress as they age
- When endings occur, people try to focus on relationships that are positively fulfilling
1. Denial
2. Anger
3. Bargaining
4. Depression
5. Acceptance
Simpsons Episode - Poison Blowfish Sushi (start at 38 sec)
If you make someone think they are younger, will their bodies act younger?
The Adolescent Brain
What can we learn about the adolescent brain?
Watch a little bit of
Kid's Say the Darndest Things
Emerging Adulthood
Not an adolescent and not yet a fully independent adult
Not yet settled stage
Late teens to mid twenties
With time, adulthood is being delayed and childhood is ending sooner
sense of "
Forming an Identity
adolescents may try out different "selves" over time
will also form a
social identity
- may develop without knowing
Ex: gender identity, team identity, american-ness
These changes happen during
are the development of
secondary sex characteristics
sexual maturation
hips and breasts
: deepening voice and facial hair
(around age 50)

Men: decrease in testosterone levels and sperm count
- early adulthood is the peak time for learning and memory
social clock
, may tell us when the "right" time is to experience a new life event
Interacting with authority
Obtaining popularity
Style of Interaction
Babbling at 4 months
Full transcript