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Working with Indigenous Populations
Transcript of Working with Indigenous Populations
Erica Allison Couto
Émilie Mongrain Part 2: Social Context of Canada's First Nations Model of Healing Counseling Theory and Process Going Beyond Individual Counseling Social Services and Mental Health Education Canadian Justice System Discourse History Demographics Part 1: Introduction 4% of the Canadian Population
1, 172,785 living in Canada Media - Relevance of the curriculum
- Portrayal of "Indians" and "Savages"
- Historical emphasis on colonial values - Over-representation
- Perpetuation of problems Children's Aid Society Balance The Initial Interview Expansion of Counselor’s Role
Community and Interconnectedness
Social and Cultural Supports First Nation Indians Inuits Métis "native to the land" -50 language groups
-Algonquin, Ojibway, Mohawk, Cree Defining "Aboriginal" Hudson's Bay Company
Northwest Fur Company -Indian Act
-Blood quantum is one-forth or more -Canadian Arctic
-Nunavut Indigenous Between 1996 & 2006,
the Aboriginal population
has increased six times more
than the non-Aboriginal population. Ottawa is home to over
20,000 aboriginal people "Status Indian" Connectedness Transcendence Practical Guidelines Non-Verbal Competencies Cultural Knowledge Culturally Sensitive Interventions Conclusion “To me, a counselor calls upon the love and understanding of a greater spirit to uplift the person.” – Morning Star Part 3 : Considerations for Counseling First Nations Aboriginal(total): 27 years
Métis: 29 years
Inuit: 21 years
Non-Aboriginal: 40 years (Statistics Canada, 2006 Census of Population) Winnipeg 10%
Edmonton 5% Basque, Breton, Spanish,
Portuguese, French, Irish & English The British allied with the Iroquois Confederacy and the First Nations of the Allegheny Mountain range.
The French allied with First Nations north of the
St. Lawrence River and in Acadia Legislated Assimilation
Development of the Indian Act(1820–1927)
"Civilizing the Indian" Ineffective Video Counsellor A Indian Act was based on the premise that it was the Crown's responsibility to care for and protect the interests of First Nations. First Nations were encouraged to settle on
reserve lands in sedentary communities,
take up agriculture and receive an education Reserves were to help First Nations
adapt to a life without the buffalo hunt
and that the government would help
them make the transition to agriculture Statistics Racism Socio-economic disparities Predominantly negative? Alienation Barriers related to: - Educational System
- Criminal Justice System
- Social Services
- Mental Health Services
- Suicide What do the numbers say? Statistics: Steps in the right direction: The 60's Scoop Alcohol and drug abuse Violence Suicide Improving discourse through cultural awareness: Need for an approach to counseling that is conscious of the client's broader cultural context. Traditional Western perspectives do not adequately address some of the social and historical barriers that interfere with counseling of First Nations clients. Residential Schools Between 1857-1996 150,000 aboriginal children attended 132 residential schools across Canada Of those 150,000,
it is estimated
that 50% died
during or shortly after 11th Century Norse Explorers Discussion Questions: 1. In groups of 2-3 people, discuss your personal experience about learning about indigenous history. Was it inclusive of the residential school era? Understanding client's expectations of counseling Getting to know your client Attitudes and beliefs about health vary somewhat among the many tribes in Canada. It is possible however, to describe a general model of healing that is common to many tribes Working with the client's beliefs -Spirituality -Direct approach -Strengh based approaches Discussion Questions: Effective Video Counsellor B Discussion Questions: 60% of the total Aboriginal population in Canada resides in Western Provinces Resources -Wabano Center -Aboriginal Ressource Center of University of Ottawa -Tewagan Transition House -Center for Aboriginal Health Research 2. What may be some of the residual effects of colonialization and the residential school system on First Nations individuals and communities? 2. Why was Andrew's approach ineffective with Émilie? 1. What are some of the difficulties that Émilie has mentioned ? 1. What are some of the notable differences in Erica's approach. 2. What are some challenges you think counsellors may face when working with aboriginal client's? -Avoid cultural appropriation 2006 Profile of Aboriginal Children, Youth and Adults: Access to Services % of people with access to services offered in his/her primary aboriginal language: - Health Services : 32 %
- Justice / Legal / Policing: 29 %
- Social and employment services: 42 %
- Other: 49 % Are the services being offered always relevant to the clients' needs? Importance of integrating "Cultural Healing" into the counselling process. Highest level of schooling ever completed:
- Less than High School Diploma: 32%
- High School or Equivalency: 15%
- Bachelor's Degree: 6%
- Master's (or >Bachelor's): 2% Employment: Employment Status:
- Working: 62%
- Looking for work: 6%
- Not looking for work: 30% Sources of income:
- Paid employment or self-employment: 68%
- Employment insurance: 12%
- Pension : 18%
- Social assistance or Welfare Benefits: 11%
- Other sources: 25% (Statistics Canada, 2006) Relevant? - Had Aboriginal teacher's or teacher's aides at school: 17%
- Had teacher's who taught in an Aboriginal language: 9% Importance to keep, learn or re-learn and Aboriginal language:
- Very important: 30%
- Somewhat important: 27%
- Not very important or not important: 41% Ability to speak and understand an Aboriginal language: 47% (Statistics Canada, 2006) (Statistics Canada 2006) 795 Aboriginal children were placed in customary care (20% increase from the previous year) 2011-2012: Aboriginal Children and youth are more likely to be admitted to care. The Aboriginal population represents 2% of the population, yet are 22% of Ontario's Crown wards. High Rate of poverty Youth suicide is 5-6 times higher than non-aboriginals. High incidence of abuse and neglect "Empty Spirits" GET INVOLVED "Aboriginals account for a disproportionate share of the prison population."
- 18% of the federal prison population (3% of general population). Incarceration Rates:
Aboriginal: 1,024 per 100,000
Non-aboriginal: 117 per 100,000 (Department of Justice, 2012) - Restorative justice - Community-based programs - Training and Development - Support measures within the CJS - Self-government capacity building AJS: Aboriginal Justice Strategy Rehabilitation Among the leading causes of death in many communities.