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Frankenfish! (Genetically Modified Salmon)

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Neevi K

on 1 February 2013

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Transcript of Frankenfish! (Genetically Modified Salmon)

Frankenfish - Genetically Modified Salmon By: Shaina Daniels, Neevi Kukreti, Molly Kelly The Atlantic Salmon Meet the Atlantic Salmon! It's formal name is Salmo salar. Life Cycle History AquAdvantage Salmon Pros of Genetically Modified Salmon Cons of Genetically Modified Salmon The GM salmon grows to market size in a year to 18 months, compared to the 5 years it takes for natural salmon to grow to market size. It's bigger and grows faster! Environmentally Friendly! Over the last two centuries, Atlantic salmon populations have decreased almost 99% due to many factors, especially overfishing. Snapshot: In Maine, there are many areas where the Atlantic Salmon populaton is considered in critical condition. With fish farms breeding special genetically modified salmon, natural salmon will be free to build up their populations once more. Economically Friendly! Faster growing fish means faster breeding. While wild salmon are ready to breed after 5 years, genetically modified salmon can breed in less than 2 years. More salmon will be available for sale, making it cheaper for consumers. Unknown Health Risks! Loss of Jobs! Interbreeding! Unnatural Natural Selection? NO long term tests to determine what the long-term effects of GM salmon are - not enough data! What is known.. 1. There are higher amounts of allergy-producing compounds in GM salmon. 2. The growth hormone added in the Atlantic Salmon (IGF-1) is a known carcinogen. 3. Omega 3 levels are about 12% lower in GE salmon than natural salmon. Omega 3 is the main health benefit of eating fish! The Center for Food Safety claims.. " fish that have been modified to grow faster also have a higher tolerance to the toxins in their environment. These toxins might end up in consumers" Due to the cheap cost of GM salmon, many fishermen will lose their livelihoods Natural selection is the selecting of advantageous traits through generations The Consumers Union states.. "Genetically engineering salmon is essentially speeding up the process of natural selection, without enough time for the kinks to work themselves out" "Frankenfish" is the term for GM salmon coined by skeptics "What are we really eating?" AquaBounty claims the GE salmon are ONLY sterile females - unable to reproduce! -However, about 5% are not sterile If GE salmon escaped into the wild, they would interbreed with wild salmon and create mutants Even worse, GE salmon would outcompete wild salmon, and eventually natural salmon populations would be wiped out! Demand for Fish! The UN Food and Agricultural Organization "more than 50 percent of the world's main fisheries stocks are fully exploited, while another 28 percent are over-exploited or depleted." As the population grows, the demand for fish grows as well Genetically modified salmon would provide more fish without completely depleting the resources of fish in the world -"The world's appetite for fish is at an all-time high" (UN) The demand for fish is constantly rising The sale of GM salmon would be a threat to wild salmon industries Is there a Future? Genetically modified salmon is not in market yet - the FDA is currently evaluating the safety and risks of allowing GM salmon to be part of consumers' diets 1996: AquaBounty makes their first bid to the FDA September 2010: The FDA claims that the fish is "highly unlikely to cause any significant effects on the environment" and that it is "as safe as food from conventional Atlantic salmon" December 2012: FDA publishes an "Environmental Assessment" for the GM Salmon claiming that there would be "No Significant Impact" December 25, 2012: 60 day period for the public to comment before FDA reviews AquAdvantage salmon again If allowed to be on the market, GM salmon would be the FIRST genetically modified animal to be available for human consumption Labeling: The FDA claims that labeling is only required in an altered food if there is a "material difference" in the altered product. Tests show that the GM salmon's composition is similar enough to a normal fish that labeling is not required However, most consumers believe that they should have the right to know if the fish they are buying is genetically modified or natural. Introducing... The genetically modified Eastern White Pine Why we chose the EWP... Soft, classic look
High Demand for this wood
Room for improvement Things we want to change about the EWP... Too soft to build with
Grows slowly
Only grows in a specific geographical region Eggs Salmon eggs hatch about 180 days after fertilization in freshwater Alevin Fry Parr Smolts Adult salmon Kelts Newly hatched salmon that still have a yolk sac attached to their bodies. The yolk sac gives them a constant food supply. Once their eight fins are developed, they swim to the surface of the water and take a gulp of air, which allows them to swim easier and have better buoyancy. After this, they can swim freely. Characterized by their vertical stripes and spots for camouflage, they continue to grow in the freshwater streams they were born in. The fish 'smolts', adapting its body to be able to live in saltwater and becoming silvery. In the spring, smolts migrate to oceans. Since oceans are rich feeding areas, smolts grow at a rapid rate. After one to three years in the ocean, they return back to the river or stream they were born in to spawn. After spawning, most salmon are weakened by lack of food, and are easily susceptible to predators. However, a distinguishing characteristic of Atlantic salmon is that they do not die after spawning, and return back to the ocean. It is native to the North Atlantic Ocean, but is also found by Europe and in the Baltic Sea The North Atlantic Salmon were once found from northern Quebec to Long Island Sound, and could be found in every river north of the Hudson In the 1800s, dams were built in the New England area. Paper mills and factories added to pollution. As a result of these factors and overfishing, Atlantic salmon are extinct in 84 percent of the rivers in New England that historically supported salmon, and the other 16 percent is in critical condition. Aquaculture: raising fish for harvest under controlled conditions. Commercial salmon farming was established in the 1970s Norway led the way with salmon aquaculture, and is the largest producer of Atlantic Salmon today In 1978, the first harvest of commercial salmon in the US yielded about 13,000 pounds. It has grown considerably since then. Economic Use Salmon is in great demand in the US and around the world Salmon imports and exports of various countries Increased perception that eating fish is healthy As the population grows, the demand for fish grows Over the past 20 years, salmon consumption has risen dramatically Atlantic Salmon is sold more than any other species of salmon Aquaculture production of all true salmon species 1950–2010 Salmon aquaculture is a critical part of the US economy (represents about $10 billion a year!) The Loblolly Pine is way better... It grows significantly harder wood that is perfect for construction
It can grow in acidic soils and in an entirely different geographical region BUT... It doesn't look as nice. Our solution... There is a gene that is found in most plants called the Iaglu gene. This gene regulates IAA in the plant. IAA is an auxin that plays a pivotal role in plant growth and development. The more IAA there is, the smaller the plant. A little background Long story short: We will modify the Iaglu gene in our Eastern White Pine so the plant will regulate itself to contain less IAA. This means our trees will grow taller and faster, which allows for harvesting way before we could have with a normal EWP. Back to the Loblolly We are going to take the genes from the Loblolly that allow it to grow harder wood, and insert them into our already genetically modified EWP.
We will do the same for the gene that allows the Loblolly to grow in very acidic soils. Loblolly Eastern White Pine ...Creating the SUPER EASTERN WHITE PINE Salmon aquaculture: salmon are raised in 'pens' that are large nets anchored to the sea bed. Overfishing was a main cause of the depletion of salmon in the New England area. A company called AquaBounty has developed a transgenic Atlantic Salmon What It Is -Transgenic: an organism that has genetic material introduced artificially from another organism In this case, A gene from the Pacific Chinook salmon, and a gene from the ocean pout is inserted into the Atlantic Salmon's genome Why? Specific Genetic Changes The actual process of gene insertion is more complicated.. Problems and Setbacks *As you can see, a LOT more research has to be done before the government and public will accept transgenic salmon into our society! Potential pros and cons Pros: Potential economic growth
Answers the demands for this wood
Create more jobs from logging
Reduce CO2 emissions from transportation of lumber
Potential for being a sustainable, renewable resource Cons: Creates a species that will compete with naturally occurring species
Potential for interfering with natural ecosystems
Little genetic variability for something to depend upon
It would be hard to recover economically and ecologically if disease would threaten the species A single gene each from the Chinook salmon and Ocean Pout will be inserted into the Atlantic Salmon. The growth hormone from the Chinook Salmon and the regualtor gene from the Ocean Pout is isolated A DNA construct is formed by connecting the two genes together The DNA construct is inserted into the Atlantic Salmon. The Atlantic Salmon only grows in the spring and summer, and its size is moderate Solution:
-the Chinook salmon (also known as the King Salmon), is the largest salmon species. Taking a growth hormone from it will make the Atlantic Salmon grow bigger - a promoter gene is taken from the ocean pout. This turns on the Chinook's growth hormone to let the Atlantic salmon grow year-round. Anti-freeze proteins from the ocean pout allow the salmon to grow in varying climates. The product definition: Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) bearing a single copy of the opAFP-GHc2 rDNA construct in the EO-1 lineage.
-What does this mean?? opAFP: Ocean Pout Anti-Freeze Protein. This allows the Atlantic Salmon to grow in very cold climates. It also turns on the growth hormone of the Chinook salmon, allowing the organism to grow all year. GHc2: Chinook Salmon Growth Hormone. Allows the Atlantic Salmon to grow twice the size of natural Atlantic Salmon. THe EO-1 lineage: this is the area of the Atlantic salmon's genome in which the two genes from the Ocean Pout and Chinook Salmon were inserted First of all, the two genes are inserted in unhatched salmon eggs. This is to ensure their enhanced growth from birth, and to make sure the artificial genes don't conflict with a mature salmon's genes. 1. Isolate the AFP in the Ocean Pout and the GH gene in the Chinook salmon
- Isolating the specific gene is critical in order to ensure that the Atlantic salmon is receiving only the necessary genes. 2. Create a DNA construct with the two genes (and synthetic linkers)
- DNA construct: an artificially 'constructed' segment of DNA that will be transplanted into an organism. The DNA construct in this case is the opAFP-GHc2 rDNA construct. The construct allows the desired genes to be inserted into the Atlantic Salmon easily.
- Synthetic Linkers: segments of DNA from both organisms to connect the AFP and GH. 3. The final DNA construct is dissolved in sterile water (.9% NaCl), and a microinjection inserted it into the Atlantic Salmon eggs
- Since the salmon eggs must be underwater, a liquid microinjection was necessary Interbreeding! Worries that the transgenic salmon will escape and interbreed with wild salmon - Solution: AquaBounty ensured that all genetically engineered salmon are sterile females, so that even if they escaped, they would have no way to reproduce HOWEVER.. research shows at least 5% of transgenic salmon are not sterile Not enough data!
- The main flaw of AquaBounty's bid for making transgenic salmon available in markets is that their data and tests are vague and has some holes. Examples:
- Health issues. There have been no long term tests to definitively prove that transgenic salmon pose no health risks.
- Toxins. The method used to test for toxins was relatively insensitive (so it wouldn't pick up anything even if there was something!)
-Sample sizes. The sample sizes for the majority of tests were very small (some had about 6). The small sample sizes can't have accurate results. *Interesting Fact: In a study, scientists found that while transgenic salmon were more aggressive than natural salmon, wild salmon actually outperformed the transgenic salmon and reproduced more effectively. Works Cited Menozzi, D., Mora, C., & Merigo, A. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.agbioforum.org/v15n3/v15n3a04-menozzi.htm
Fletcher, G. (n.d.). Transgenic salmon for culture and consumption. Retrieved from http://www-heb.pac.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/congress/2002/biochem/fletcher.pdf Beardmore, J. (2003). Genetically modified organisms and aquaculture. (pp. 9-40). Rome : DOI: ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/006/y4955e/Y4955E00.pdf Moreau, D., Conway, C., & Fleming, I. (2011). Reproductive performance of alternative male phenotypes of growth hormone transgenic atlantic salmon (salmo salar). Evolutionary Applications, 4(6), 736-748. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1752-4571.2011.00196.x/full Aqua Bounty Technologies. (2010). Retrieved from FDA website: http://www.fda.gov/downloads/AdvisoryCommittees/CommitteesMeetingMaterials/VeterinaryMedicineAdvisoryCommittee/UCM224760.pdf Veterinary Medicine Advisory Committee. (2010). Retrieved from website: http://www.fda.gov/downloads/AdvisoryCommittees/CommitteesMeetingMaterials/VeterinaryMedicineAdvisoryCommittee/UCM224762.pdf
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