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Introduction to Music

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by

Tim Stevenson

on 10 May 2016

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Transcript of Introduction to Music

Introduction to Music
Part I: Elements of Music
Sound: Pitch, Dynamics, and Tone Color
Pitch: Highness or Lowness of Sound
Dynamics
Tone Color
*Often referred to as timbre.
bright
dark
brilliant
mellow
rich
The Firebird, Scene 2 - Igor Stravinsky
How do we listen to music?

Why should we listen to the music of previous generations?
Tone
Interval
Pitch Range (
tessitura
aka range)
Solfegio (
do, re, mi, fa, sol, la, ti, do
)
pianissimo
pp
very soft
piano
p
soft
mezzo piano
mp
medium soft
mezzo forte
mf
medium loud
forte
f
loud
fortissimo
ff
very loud
C-Jam Blues - Duke Ellington
Performing Media: Voices and Instruments
*Voice - refers to any instrument used to produce sound in a musical setting; NOT just the human "voice"
The Human Voice
Women
soprano
mezzo-soprano
alto (or contralto)
Men
tenor
baritone
bass
The Magic Flute - Mozart
Queen of the Night Aria
- dramatic soprano

C.P.E. Bach: Magnificat in D major, Wq. 215 (Alto) [~32:00]

Figaro
- from The Barber of Seville
- Tenor
Rossini: "La Calunnia" aria - bass
Instruments Families
Strings
Woodwinds
Brass
Percussion
Keyboard
Electronic
STRINGS
*Includes all instruments that utilize strings to produce sound.
*These instruments are played by plucking, striking, or bowing the strings.
TWO TYPES
Plucked Stringed Instruments
Bowed Stringed Instruments
Plucked String Instruments
Guitar
Harp
Lute
Banjo
Bowed String Instruments
violin
viola
cello (violoncello)
double bass
"Eine kleine Nachtmusik" I. Allegro
-Mozart
Small String Orchestra
Concerto in Re -Vivaldi" - Allegro
"Corelli Guitar Consort
WOODWIND INSTRUMENTS
*Instruments that are made of wood and/or use a reed to produce vibrations.

*The pitch of these instruments are controlled by lengthening or shorten the instruments through the use of tone holes or keys.
Example of Woodwind Instruments
Piccolo
Flute
Recorders
NON reed
SINGLE reeds
Clarinet
Bass Clarinet
Saxophone
*There are many instruments included in these families. These instruments vary in size.
DOUBLE reeds
Oboe
English Horn
Bassoon
Contra Bassoon
*Uses a single piece of wood (reed) against a mouthpiece. Forcing air between the reed and mouthpiece creates vibrations and produces sound.
*Uses two pieces of wood pressed against each other. Forcing air between the two reeds creates vibration and produces sound.
Toccata and Fugue in d-Moll
Thriller - Double Reed Ensemble
William Tell Overture - Clarinet Ensemble
J. S. Bach. Fugue in G minor Saxophone Quartet
Brass Instruments
*These instruments produce sound by the vibrations created by the musicians lips into a cup-shaped mouthpiece.

*The highness and lowness of the pitch depends on the speed of the vibrations. Faster vibrations result in higher pitches; Slow vibration result in lower pitches.
Example of Brass Instruments
Trumpet
French Horn
Trombone
Euphonium
Tuba
*Similar to the woodwind instruments; each family of brass instruments come in a variety of size.
Festive Overture, Op.96
Trumpet Ensemble
Jurassic Park
Vienna French Horn Ensemble
Star Wars
Trombone Ensemble
Festive Overture, Op.96
Tuba/Euphonium Ensemble
Percussion
Definite Pitch - these instrument produce a definitive tone/pitch

Indefinite Pitch - these instruments produce a "noiselike sound"
Instruments that are struck to produce a sound.
Example of Percussion
Definite Pitch Indefinite Pitch
*timpani *snare drum
*glockenspiel *bass drum
*xylophone *tambourine
*celesta *triangle
*chimes *cymbals
*gong (tam-tam)
Bohemian Rhapsody
Percussion Ensemble
Keyboard Instruments
Piano
Harpsichord
Pipe Organ
Celeste

Toccata & Fugue in d minor
-pipe organ

*These include instruments that require electricity to produce sound.
Electronic Instruments
"Jump" - Van Halen
The Young Person's Guide to the Orchestra, Op.34 - Benjamin Britten
Full transcript