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PDHPE Preliminary Core 2: The Body in Motion
Transcript of PDHPE Preliminary Core 2: The Body in Motion
influence and respond to movement? What is the relationship between physical fitness, training and movement efficiency? How do biomechanical principles influence movement? Skeletal System Major bones involed in movement Three types of bones
Long bones (levers)
Short bones (transfer forces)
Flat bones (protect vital organs) Bones provide structure to the body in the same way that a frame gives
structure to a house. Bones move only because muscles pull them, often rapidly,
through specific positions, enabling activities such as throwing, kicking,
running and swimming. An anatomical reference system called directional terms is used
to identify the location of bones. Structure and function of synovial joints Three types of joints
Immovable joints (no movement e.g. cranium bones
Slightly movable or cartilaginous joints (limited movement e.g. vertebral column.
Freely movable or Synovial Joints (Maximum movement e.g. hip joint
Fibrous bands that connect the articulating bones. They maintain stability in the joint
by restraining excessive movement, but can also control the degree and direction
of movement that occurs. Tendons
Tendons are tough, inelastic cords of tissue that attach
muscle to bone. Joints are further strengthened by
muscle tendons that extend across the joint and assist
ligaments to hold the joint closed. Synovial fluid
Synovial fluid acts as a lubricant, keeping the joint
well oiled and the moving surfaces apart. Synovial fluid
forms a fluid cushion between bones. It also provides
nutrition for the cartilage and carries away waste. Hyaline cartilage
Long bones are covered with a layer of smooth, shiny cartilage
that allows the bones to move freely over each other. Hyaline cartilage
has a limited blood supply but receives nourishment via the synovial
fluid. This cartilage is thicker in the leg joints, where there is greater weight
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