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Transcript of Cell Biology
Biology/Life Sciences Standard 1 Cell Biology Standard 1A Cells are enclosed within semi-
permeable membranes that regulate
their interaction with their
surroundings. Standard 1C Prokaryotic cells,
Eukaryotic cells, and
Viruses differ in complexity and internal structure. Plants capture energy from sunlight and store it as sugar through the process of photosynthesis. Standard 1E The Endoplasmic Reticulum and the Golgi Apparatus play an important role in the production of protiens. Standard 1F Standard 1G Mitochondria release the energy stored in chemical bonds by breaking down glucose into carbon dioxide. Eukaryotic cells are highly specialized and have organelles to perform specific jobs within the cell. Plant cells differ from animal cells because of specialized organelles. The Nucleus is the Key! Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells have one key difference that gives us clues about the evolution of organisms. Notice that plant cells have cell walls and chloroplasts that aren't present in animal cells. They also have very large vacuoles to store water. Lets Hypothesize...
What is the purpose of a cell wall?
Why is the cell wall important in plant cells but absent in animal cells?
Why do plant cells need to be able to store more water than animal cells? Each part of the cell...known as an oganelle...plays a special role to help the cell stay alive and do its job. What is the job of each cell part and organelle?
Golgi Body or Golgi Apparatus
Endoplasmic Reticulum Is a virus a living organism?
Explain: to be considered alive an organism must have certain characteristics:
Organization. Living things exhibit a high level of organization, with multicellular organisms being subdivided into cells, and cells into organelles, and organelles into molecules, etc.
Homeostasis. Homeostasis is the maintenance of a constant (yet also dynamic) internal environment in terms of temperature, pH, water concentrations, etc. Much of our own metabolic energy goes toward keeping within our own homeostatic limits.
Adaptation. Living things are suited to their mode of existence.
Reproduction and heredity. Since all cells come from existing cells, they must have some way of reproducing, whether that involves asexual (no recombination of genetic material) or sexual (recombination of genetic material).
Growth and development. Even single-celled organisms grow. When first formed by cell division, they are small, and must grow and develop into mature cells. Multicellular organisms pass through a more complicated process.
Energy acquisition and release. One view of life is that it is a struggle to acquire energy (from sunlight, inorganic chemicals, or another organism), and release it in the process of forming ATP (adenosine triphosphate).
Detection and response to stimuli
Interactions. Living things interact with their environment as well as each other. Why do they matter? Viral infections diseases
•AIDS : specific damage to the immune system caused by human immunodeficiency virus.
•AIDS related complex : individuals susceptible to opportunistic infections and tumors.
•Chickenpox (Varicella) : caused by varicella-zoster virus and spots appear mainly on the body and head.
•Common cold : disease of the upper respiratory system. Also called acute viral nasopharyngitis.
•Cytomegalovirus infection : generally concerning salivary glands, though may be found anywhere in the body.
•Colorado tick fever : transmitted from the bite of an infected wood tick.
•Dengue fever : transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquito.
•Ebola hemorrhagic fever : symptoms are diarrhea, internal and external bleeding, fever, general body pain and vomiting.
•Hand, foot and mouth disease : common cause is Coxsackie A virus and usually affects infants and children.
•Hepatitis : characterized by the presence of inflammatory cells in the liver tissue.
•Herpes simplex : symptoms are itching, swelling, emission of fluid from swelling, headache, fatigue, overall gloomy mental state.
•Herpes zoster : affects the nervous system with or without appearance of a rash on the skin.
•HPV : DNA-based viruses that infect the skin and mucous membranes.
•Influenza (Flu) : symptoms are sore throat, fever, headache, muscle pains, weakness, coughing and discomfort.
•Lassa fever : initially mucosa, intestine, lungs, urinary systems are affected, then vascular system and then every tissue in the body.
•Measles : is spread through respiration and is highly contagious.
•Marburg hemorrhagic fever : spread though bodily fluids like saliva, vomit, blood and excrement.
•Infectious mononucleosis : common in adolescents and young adults, characterized by fever, muscle soreness, sore throat, fatigue.
•Mumps : characterized by painful swelling of the salivary glands and fever. Painful testicular swelling and rash may also occur.
•Poliomyelitis : spread from one person to other via the fecal-oral route, e.g. poor hand washing.
•Progressive multifocal leukencephalopathy : occurs exclusively in people with severe immune deficiency.
•Rabies : transmitted through bites, aerosol through mucous membranes, transplant surgery or kisses.
•Rubella : virus enters body via nose or throat.
•SARS : symptoms are fever, lethargy, myalgia, cough, sore throat, gastrointestinal symptoms.
•Smallpox (Variola) : caused by Variola major and Variola minor. May cause characteristic skin scars and occasionally blindness due to corneal ulcerations and infertility in male survivors.
•Viral encephalitis : an acute inflammation of the brain.
•Viral gastroenteritis : inflammation or infection of the gastrointestinal tract, generally of the stomach and intestines.
•Viral meningitis : inflammation of the protective membranes covering the nervous system.
•Viral pneumonia : an illness of the lungs and respiratory system.
•West Nile disease : transmitted through the bite of an infected mosquito.
•Yellow fever : important cause of hemorrhagic illness in many African and South American nations. Animal Cell Plant Cell Viruses! What is the one KEY difference? Archaea
Archaea are microbes. Most live in extreme environments. Some even live in your guts!
Some love the heat! They like to live in boiling water, like the geysers of Yellowstone Park, and inside volcanoes. Other Archaea love to live in very salty, called hypersaline, environments like the Salton Sea, the Great Salt Lake, and Mono Lake.
Archaea was originally thought to be just like bacteria, but archaea is a much different and simpler form of life. It may also be the oldest form of life on Earth!
Archaea requires neither sunlight for photosynthesis as do plants, nor oxygen. Archaea absorbs CO2, N2, or H2S and gives off methane gas as a waste product the same way humans breathe in oxygen and breathe out carbon dioxide. Monera
Nitrogen fixing aerobes
Chemoautotrophs Prokaryotes are found in Kingdom... What kinds of organisms have Eukaryotic cells? Diffusion Osmosis Active Transport Passive Transport Terms to Know Pop Quiz! Label the cell diagram and list the role of each organelle.