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Mary Jane Gurriell

on 6 November 2015

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Transcript of Radio

Rise of the networks and early programming
Diversity and Censorship
Of the 13,750 radio stations on the air today more than 10,000 of those are commercially owned.
Companies like Clear Channel Communication own huge chunks of radio media. More than 1,200 stations!
Companies like CCC were able to become powerhouses after the Telecommunications Act of 1996 removed many ownership restrictions on these large companies
In about 4 years after the Act was passed more than 2,000 stations were bought out based on their profitability.
What used to be 1,000 radio stations on the air during the Golden Age of Radio has become the 10,000 commercial stations around today.
This mass abundance of stations has taken a narrower focus when reaching audiences by "fragmenting" into these smaller listening groups.
Current radio trend:
Music streaming
Pandora Radio
Golden Age
1930s - End of WWII
Sirius XM
Shock Radio
style of radio intended to go to extreme measures (vulgarity, racism, sexism, etc.) in order to attract listeners; thought of as obsene and sometimes pornographic in nature.
notable shock jocks include: Howard Stern, Michael Savage, and Rush Limbaugh, who currently has the most listened to talk show in America broadcast on over 600 radio stations.
Primary concern is that these shows air during the day when children can access it, which has resulted in significant fines being levied; the Broadcast Deceny Enforcement Act of 2005 sought to stem these incidents by increasin the ceiling of these fines by 20 times.
Fines eventually became so heavy that by 2007, nearly all shock jocks had moved over to satellite radio.
the biggest problem is that most shock jocks controversial content comes at the expense of minorities; as of 2015, fewer than 3% of U.S. commerical broadcasting stations are minority-owned.
Satellite Radio is pretty much a radio you pay for

virtually no commercials
no static
displays the artist's name and the song title
uncensored (such as the Comedy channel)
more than 175+ channels
72 commercial free music
11 sports talk/play-by-play
22 talk and entertainment
9 comedy
15 news and issues
9 traffic and weather
18 Latin
14 others
Listen to everything, everywhere
XM satellite radio, first know as American Mobile Satellite Corporation, (AMSC) was founded in 1988. On September 25th, 2001, XM Satellite Radio service was officially launched, first in San Diego and Dallas, Texas and then across the United States. Its service consisted of 114 different music channels, 39 news, sports, talk and entertainment channels, 21 regional traffic and weather channels and 23 play-by-play sports channels. XM was the first to sign deals with AirTran Airways, United Airlines and JetBlue Airways to add XM Radio to their aircrafts.

The Merger
On February 19, 2007, Sirius Satellite Radio and XM Satellite Radio announced a merger that would combine the two radio services and create a single Satellite Radio network for the United States and Canada. This occurred because by 2007, neither has gained a profit even though they each had millions of subscribers. Both ad billions in losses, caused by their fierce competition and high-priced talent.

On July 23, 2008,the Federal Communications Commission approved the merger between XM and Sirius after a nearly 18-month review of the deal. They originally balked at the idea since the two promised to compete with each other when they first came about. In this deal, the FCC required the new combined company to keep prices steady for 3 years, set aside 8% of its channels for noncommercial programmers, they have to allow any manufacturer to make a device able to catch satellite radio, and they must pay a $19.7 million fine on the companies past rule violations while making new radios which can receive both streams available within a few months.

On January 13, 2011, XM Satellite Radio, Inc. was dissolved as a separate entity and merged into Sirius XM Radio, Inc
Sirius was founded as Satellite CD Radio, Inc. in 1990. The name changed to Sirius on November 18, 1999. It was officially launched in on July 1st, 2001. It had 101 music channels and 65 channels of sports news, news and entertainment.

On October 6, 2004, Sirius announced that it signed a five-year, $100 million per year agreement with Howard Stern to move his radio show, The Howard Stern Show started on January 9, 2006. The deal also gave Stern rights to build three full-time programming channels. Since his deal the audience for Sirius grew from 700k to 6 million subscribers.


XM Satellite Radio
Sirius Satellite Radio
3 Separate Plans:
Select: 14.99 a month
All Access: 19.99 a month
Mostly Music: 10.99 a month
(Streaming Add-on: $4.00 a month)

Available in almost all vehicles now
Can now listen to it on th go using a computer, smartphone or tablet
(June 17th, 2009 released a aplication for Apple iPhone and iPod touch)
3,717,792 square miles of seamless coast to coast coverage
200 miles off shore and your radio will still work
(by contrast- terrestrial radio reception range is generally limtied to about 50-100 miles)

To beat out the competition of companies such as Pandora, SiriusXM announce in August of 2011 that the company would start offering a personalized interactive online radio experience. MySXM debuted on April 15th, 2013 allowing users to fine-tune over 50 existing Sirius XM channels.

Digital Audio Radio Service (DARS) was established by the FCC in 1992 to establish certain segments of radio frequency for satellite broadcast on radio. Two companies bid on the licensees.
Today's Sirius XM
Pirate Radio
Examples of Pirate Radios In the u.s.
The Crystal Ship and Radio Free Speech are political
KIPM produces its own science-fiction programming with radio plays of old-time radio
Radio One recreated the sound of 1960s top-40 radio stations and played oldies
Many are long-running gag stations such as WBNY
Other stations provide electric music programming such as Wolverine Radio, WMPR and Liquid Radio
The Womb: a South Miami Beach Florida radio station sin the late 1990s that featured DJs from each of Miami Beach's the famous nightclubs. The stations was featured in Rolling Stone in 1997 for its concurrent web-based streaming. Still continues on the internet today.

RPMRADIO Central Studio- San Antonio, Texas operated on 97.7 FM, broadcast uncensored rock an roll for over 5 years. Brought the first pirate radio broadcasts to the area and was considered "the Garden of Eden" of radio markets. When they received their first notice from the FCC, they went underground and contine to operate several "Low Power Pirate FM Stations" in the area.

Free Radio Prison City "FIXX 96"- broadcast in Jackson, Michigan between 1996-2001 playing hard rock and alternative rock music mixed with antics and pranks. The station was very popular with the inmates at the nearby State Prison so they would read fan mail from the inmates on air regulary.
Low-Power FM
Rise of Networks

AT&T was the first network and was part of National Broadcasting System (NBC)
New York to Boston
William Paley
Bought CBS in 1927 and started offering local stations better deals than NBC.
Leader of radio news by the end of WWII
The American Broadcasting Company (ABC) was created in 1940 when RCA was forced to sell one its networks
Government was scared that RCA had too much control over the public airwaves

Early Programming
Radio and Communication Acts
Radio Act of 1912
- Requires ships to leave on their radios 24 hours a day (Titanic)
Radio Act of 1927
- Established the Federal Radio Commission to solve interference issues and broadcast for the good of the community
Communications Act of 1934
- Changed the Federal Radio Commission to the Federal Communications Commission.
Regulated interstate telephone, telegraph, and radio communications
FM Radio
Edwin Armstrong invented Frequency Modulation (FM), which increased the sound quality for music

Programming became countrywide talk
Talk shows (morning), soap operas (afternoon)
Live musical shows:
Bing Crosby, Frank Sinatra
Comedy shows:
Lou Costello, Jack Benny, George Burns
Pearl Harbor Attack: 60 million people tuned into their radios
Fireside chats
End of WWII: rise of television
Rise of TV
After WWII, TV took attention away from radio
3 reasons for the survival of radio:
FM radio:
superior sound quality compared to AM radio and TV
Transistor Portable:
radios were made at a fraction of the size, more durable, and took less power
Radio was now portable
Format Radio:
playing similar types of records in rotation throughout the day
Attracts loyal listeners
Example: Top 40 Countdown
Concentration and
FCC debated whether to license low-power stations to increase the diversity of voices over the radio
Low Power FM (LPFM) was created in January 2000
Stations are authorized for noncommercial educational broadcasting only (no commercial operation)
only allowed for educational entities and public safety and transportation organizations
not available to individuals or for commercial operations
The LPFM radio service consists of two types of radio stations:
100-watt stations, which reach an area with a radius of approximately three and one-half miles,
10-watt stations, which generally reach an area with a radius of between one and two miles.
The Federal Communications Commission first authorized LPFM stations in 2000, and it issued more than 800 licenses to schools, churches, labor unions, civil rights groups, community centers and other organizations across the country.
Radio has been used by commentators who have many different minority, radical, and artistic points of views. Some of these groups tried to avoid the censorship of the FCC by and created pirate radio stations which are low-power, unlicensed and illegal stations. Starting in the 1960s, pirate radio got its name from stations who broadcast from ships anchored at sea.

a practice in which record companies paid radio station personnel to play certain
payola scandals of the 1950s
Disc jockeys (DJs) had selection over the eliminated number of records that could be played
record selection then became the reponsibility of the program director of the station
legal for of pay-for-play= the record company would pay the station to play a song and the staiton would make an appropriate announcement
"this record was brought to you by..."
may still choose to do it illegally
2006 New York State Attorney General Eliot Spitzer uncovered that high-ranking executives had secretly traded cash for airplay of songs
Music Genome Project
Listeners search an artist, song, or genre and receive a playlist of songs similar to the one they selected
Have the ability to rate the automated selections
Free option (supported by advertisements)
6 skips/hour
Paid Version
6 skips/hour/station
Digital Radio
Webcasting has made it easy to reach an extremely broad audience
Podcasts (Pre-recorded radio shows) can be downloaded and played wherever and whenever
Streaming stations such as LastFM adapt and change according to the listeners preference.
Along with playing songs you like LastFM also allows for you to skip songs you don't like or even look up info and download those that you do like.
Radio Formats & Industry Structure
Radio Formats:
Popular Music is divided into formats that radio stations use to design playlistst appeal to certain audiences
Examples: Country music formats, religious programming formats, Spanish & latin music formats, etc.
Format clock: Radio programmers map out every minurte of the broadcast day, with the sole objective of keeping the listener listening

Industry Structure:

Industry structure is broken down into...
1. Local stations
2. Station groups: group owners who own two or more stations
3. Networks: group of inter connected stations that share programming
4. Public Radio (noncommerical): does not get income from the sale of advertising time

Effects of COncentrations/homogenized programming
- a trend towards similar programming withing broadcast radio in the U.S. It is partially a result of the conglomeration of radio companies

style of radio centering more on appealing to people's vulnerabilities (fear, lack of educaiton, etc.) to create hate towards a certain group of people.
one of the forefathers of this style was Father Charles Coughlin, a Roman Catholic priest in the 1930s whose broadcsts spread immense hatred towards socialists, communists, "international bankers" and especially Jews.
1994's ethnic massacre of Rwanda's Tutsi by the Hutu people a prime example of the powerful effects of hate radio
Pop music station called Radio Television Libre des Mille Collines (RTLM) encouraged listeners to "finish off the Tutsi cockroaches", reading off names of prominent Tutsi to be killed and providing instrucitons on where to find them.
Estimated to have caused the massacres of 800,000 people; the executives of the radio station were sentenced to life in prison after being convicted of genocide by an international tribunal.
big companies buy many radio stations so that they can control what is on the air most of the time. This can lead to them shaping what new music you hear. The top four radio station owners have almost half of the listeners and the top ten owners have almost two-thirds of listeners.

This can lead to local independent stations to adjust their stations to compete with the big compeititors that get the most views... Number of independent stations has dropped big time since 1996 telecommunications act.
removed all national and local restrictions on national ownership that specified the number of stations one company could own in a set market. Before 1996, a company was prohibited from owning more than 40 stations, and from owning more than two AM and two FM stations in one market.

Radio listening has decreased ever since it peaked in 1989 possibly due to others sources of music, Sirius XM, Pandora, and Spotify
Early Development

Samuel Morse-1842
Alexander Graham Bell 1876
Built on theories developed before him
Radio Waves originally called Hertzian Waves
Created wireless telegraph system
Came to USA 1899
Added voice to the radio in 1906
Audion tube
Called himself "father of the radio"
Really referred to as "Father of modern electronics"
Radio Consortium
set to build radio industry by manufacturing radio receivers fo the home market and setting up stations to broadcast recievers
4 companies took over
Frank Conrad
request of his boss a Westinghouse..
KDKA station in Pittsburgh
Unsure of first actual radio station
KCBS San Francisco
WHA in Madison, Wisconsin
WWI in Detriot
Toll Broadcasting
Sustaining Programming
Hobbyist Toy-> Backbone of National Entertainment in Golden Days-> Struggling Medium in Today's Economy

1. Radio producers will play music that appeals to the target audience
2. Elements that help determine the target audience: the songs, morning and evening programs, words and phrases the deejay uses and the commercials
3. Morning shows will focus on current events that air to make commuters stay tuned during their drive to work
4. Browsing the radio station's website also helps figure out the target audience

1. Radio audiences are measured with diaries, which is the most used method
2. Most radio listening diary runs for one week and it is filled in by one person
3. Usually there's one page opening for each day, with quarter hour units down the page and one column for each station
4. To indicate the listening to a station during most of quarter hour, the respondent just ticks the box for one station
5. When there's many radio statins in the area, the sicker method is used.
6. Aside from diaries, there's also the Media Watch, which came after the diaries.
7. Portable People Meter also became apparent
1. Average audience
2. Cumulative audience
3. Share
4. Duration
5. Impressions
6. Frequency-average and distribution
7. Loyalty
1. A consumer research company in the U.S. that collects listener data on radio broadcasting audiences
2. Founded by Jim Seiler
3. Two methods
i. Survey
ii. Portable People Meter
Effects of concentrations
Radio Homogenization
The 1996 Telecommunications Act
Determining the target audience:
Nielsen Audio
Measures of radio audiences:
Audience Measurement:
Foundation of the Radio
First Broadcasters
Finishing Touches
Hate Radio
Works Citied
Launched in 2008
Swedish music streaming, podcast, and video service
Content from: BBC, SONY, EMI, Warner Music Group, Universal
Radio based on genres, decades, and artists
Free Option
5 skips/hour
Premium Option
Unlimited skips
Main difference: Spotify allows users to take songs from the radio and create personal playlists
Full transcript