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Interactions & Ecosystems
Transcript of Interactions & Ecosystems
Ecosystems (cc) photo by theaucitron on Flickr (cc) photo by theaucitron on Flickr Topic 1-
Ecosystem Let's start at the bottom of things... p. 6 to 17 what is ECOLOGY? what is an ecologist? any ideas?
find out their
write them out. Did you get... Ecology is the study of the
relationship between living
organisms and their environment.
An ecologist is someone who
studies those relationships. Please Read:
p 6-7-8 The Needs of Living Things There are 4:
NAME and DEFINE each one
(Use at least one example) Living things need food. Living things need a suitable habitat. Living things need water. Living things exchange gases. Living things are always interacting with each other and with the non-living things in their environment. Adaptations Please Read:
p. 10-11 Living things are adapted, so they 'fit' into
their surroundings, to ensure survival. An adaptation is inherited during the organism's lifetime. It is a characterisitic that helps
an organism survive and
reproduce in its environment. 4 basic needs P. 11 "Did You Know" Science 7-
Assignment Ecosystems An ecosystem is the interactions between living
things in a
environment. An ecosystem is a place where these
as a rotting
log, or a forest. All organisms and parts within this place are interacting all the time and adjustments must occur if the organism is to survive. Do things grow?
Do things interact in the wild?
How? Ecosystems vary in size and complexity. Tip Real
Huge This looks like a huge mountain imagine that this is a mall part of the ecosystem...
like a dead tree in a forest... In order to study an entire ecosystem, scientists often study only a small aspect of an ecosystem and then work with other scientists to piece together THE WHOLE FOREST the overall picture of how the ecosystem functions. P. 13 Interactions in Ecosystems Symbiosis - When two species live cosely together in a relationship that lasts over time symbiosis occurs. What do you think the three types of relationship there are?.... occurs when there is a relationship between two different organisms, in which each partner benefits from the relationship. Mutualism Parasitism occurs when there is a relationship between two different organisms, in which one partner benefits from the relationship, while the other partner is harmed. Typically, the partner that benefits (the parasite), lives on or in the other organism (the host) and feeds on it. occurs when there is a relationship between two different organisms, in which one partner benefits from the relationship, while the other neither benefits, nor is harmed. Commensalism ask about the ethiopians monkeys P. 14- 15 Impacts on Ecosystems Symbiotic relationships are only a few ways that organisms interact with one another within an ecosystem. Other interactions may involve the physical changing of the ecosystem by the organisms living in it and interacting with parts of it. For every action in an ecosystem there is a resulting effect and reaction which will change the make-up of the ecosystem in some way. Like when a family of beavers make a dam, the stream below the dam dries up, killing the water organisms that need the water to survive. Above the dam, a pond changes the habitat and limits the kinds of organisms that can survive there. P. 16 P. 17
All Questions Topic 2 : Human Impacts on Ecosystems P. 18- 28 Natural
Resources are the materials and products that are found in nature, that people use to meet their basic needs. p. 18-19 Write down at least 5 natural ressources, your answers will be shared with the class. The impact that people have on the use of resources can be very small, or
can be huge,
and can lead
Effect? "The needs of all living things now have to be met with the available natural resources. How we are able to satisfy these needs with minimal conflict will determine how resourceful we can be." What does this statement mean?
Can you put it into a better sentence?
your own words in your notes.... People and Nature -
A Changing Relationship Nowadays, resources are transported throughout the world, as the demand gets higher. The ways people interact with the environment has changed over time. Machines and advanced technologies have caused a higher impact than in the past. Lifestyle changes over time have increased the pressure on different environments and the ecosystems we live in. Gathering Food in Alberta:
Then and Now Where Head-Smashed-In Buffalo Jump Prairie Settlers Cattle Feedlots What are the Differences Between these ways of gathering food?
How do they work?
Which is best? P. 21 p. 20 What is a Need?
What is a Want? Needs are basic to survival ' wants ' are things that just make survival more comfortable or enjoyable. Each time a need or a want is satisfied, natural resources or energy are used up. This impacts the environment we live in. When this happens we need to decide whether our want is more important than their need. The needs of wildlife can be negatively impacted by the wants of people. p.22-23 Are forest fires bad? Is spraying for Mosquitoes a good thing? please read p. 24-25 No Simple Answers These fires get rid of small trees, leaves, needles and other debris that settles on the forest floor.
The new growth after a fire becomes food for elk, deer and other animals that need these nutrients from the forest floor. Setting a forest on fire (a controlled burn) is often necessary to maintain a balance in the ecosystem. what is DDT? answer as a class... Ready for the Review? Topic 2 Review
ALL questions Topic 3 : Environmental Choices p. 29-37 Are we putting back what we take out, or, are we using up all the resources before they can be replaced? Energy includes: electricity, natural gas, as well as all the energy needed to produce, and transport all of the manufactured products you use The ecological footprint of average Canadians is very large,
more waste than is sustainable. Ways to reduce ecological footprint include:
1. Be aware of the products you consume in a typical day
2. Reduce the energy you use
3. Reduce the number of products you buy
4. Reduce the amount of garbage you produce
We depend on the environment and we are part of the environment.
Sustainability means that the resources from the environment can be replaced as quickly as they are used. Your Ecological
Footprint p.29 http://www.footprintnetwork.org/en/index.php/GFN/page/calculators/ here's a good link To calculate your ecological footprint, you need to determine the total area of land that you use Impact Here and There and water needed to supply all of the energy and materials that you use, as well as absorb all of the waste that you produce. Materials that are included are: food, water, supplies to build shelter and raw materials needed to produce the manufactured products you use. p.30-31 Did you know... Reduce, Reuse, Recycle p. 33 Reduce.
"Reduce" means using fewer resources in the first place. This is the most effective of the three R's and the place to begin. It is also, I think, the hardest because it requires letting go of some very American notions, including: the bigger the better, new trumps old. Reuse.
Before you recycle or dispose of anything, consider whether it has life left in it. A jam jar can store leftovers. Food scraps can become compost. An old shirt can become a pajama top. An opened envelope can become a shopping list. A magazine can be shared. DVDs can be traded. A dishwasher can be repaired. A computer can be upgraded. A car can be resold. A cell phone can be donated. Recycle.
Recycling is the "R" that has caught on the best. Partly, this is because there are so many curbside recycling programs today (8,660 as of 2006, according to the EPA), which makes recycling so darned easy. What keeps it from being a total piece of cake is the rules. Every municipality has its own, and they are not always as straightforward as they could be. long vid short vid The Wrap up... p. 37
1-6 Topic 4 :
How Organisms Interact p. 38-48
Living organisms make up the biotic components of the ecosystem, while non-living things make up the abiotic parts of the same ecosystem. The Roles of Organisms in an Ecosystem Organisms can have more than one niche and knowing the niches of an organism can help to explain why they act and interact the way they do. All of the organisms within an ecosystem have different roles. These roles are called niches. To determine an organism's niche, you need to identify
what it eats,
where it lives
how it interacts with the other organisms Niches include: Producers -
produce food energy
for themselves and others
consume the food
made by the producers Herbivores - eat producers (plant eating niche) Carnivores - eat other consumers (meat eating niche)
Predators eat prey Omnivores - eat both producers and consumers p. 40 Read page 41, and answer questions A food web is a combination of many different food chains in an ecosystem. Food Webs A food chain is a model that shows how energy stored in food passes from organism to organism. A Food Pyramid is a model representing the numbers of organisms consumed at each successive level of the pyramid. please look on page 43 The Clean-Up Squads: Scavengers are organisms that feed on dead or decaying plant or animal matter. Decomposers are different from scavengers because they do not actually eat dead material. They grow on or in the dead or waste matter, absorbing the nutrients directly Topic 4 Review
Questions 1,3,4 you need to understand that not all the energy from one level is available to the nest level. Where does the energy go? Please Read Page 38 and page 40 Do you know the three types
of consumers? some videos may be loud-
all relating to decomposing Topic 5 :
Cycles in the Environment p. 49-55 When organisms breathe, the gases are recycled in the air and used by other organisms. When organisms die, the nutrients they are composed of are recycled back into the environment and used as well. The
please read page 49 Carbon is necessary for all life to exist and
is recycled in the environment. sketch this cycle Things that place Carbon in the air:
-Burning Fossil Fuels
-Fossil Fuels Things that bring carbon
back to earth:
-Dissolving in water The
Water Cycle All living things require water to survive and this water is also recycled over and over again. please read p. 51 Sketch this, or the picture on page 51 in your notes The Bolb words on page 51 must be written and defined in your notes.
please do so. this is a great animation of the water cycle, see if you can catch all the parts of it... Pollution in
the Environment Pollution occurs when a substance is added to the environment at such a fast rate that it
recycled in a non-damaging form. Pollutants are substances that cause pollution. creating acid rain... copy this scale in your notes Burning of Fossil fuels puts higher than normal levels of CO2 into the atmosphere and the ozone layer (which protects us from radiation is being depleted. Is there a risk of over using chemicals? please read page 53 and answer the question in your notes. Bioaccumulation is the process in which a substance builds up in a living organism "biomagnification", where substances like mercury will increase in concentration from microorganisms, to fish, to fish eating predators like otters and loons, and to humans please read page 54.
Paraphrase what Bioaccumulation is
(in your notes)
or Sketch the
Bioaccumulation The WRAP UP... Topic 4-5 Wrap up
(hint- use the key terms for Question #1) Topic 6:
in Ecosystems p. 56-67 Organisms to first appear are those that can cling to the rock and grow, such as mosses and lichens. These organisms break down the rock and died. Other organisms use the nutrients to begin to grow. Examples of areas in which a community has never lived before would be:
new lava or rock from a volcano that makes a new island or a new landscape
a sand bar that arises from shifting sands in the ocean The gradual growth of organisms in an area after a disturbance, such as a fire, or when a large tree falls, is known as secondary succession. Some Species Adapt Better Than Others
Cowbirds adapt to farmland easily,
while others cannot.
The coyote has been able to adapt to the spread of urban areas, whereas other animals, such as the wolf have not This occurs with a pesticide that is designed to kill lygus bugs (who damage canola crops). The pesticide will also kill bees. If the pesticide kills the pest predators, then the pest population may actually increase. Introduced Species
The species that is introduced may have no natural predators and will overtake the area (using up the food supply) so that other organisms cannot survive. Many species in North America and in Canada specifically are in danger of extinction.
If a species becomes extinct, it can no longer be found anywhere in the world.
Sometimes the organism is only lost in a large region.
If this occurs, the species is extirpated.
There are special protection programs and laws made to protect endangered species. Primary succession is the gradual growth of organisms in an area that was previously bare , like a rocky slope. The gradual process by which some species within an ecosystem replaces other species is called succession. Secondary Succession read p 56 p. 57 Changes Caused by Human Activity Humans affect the environments around them in many ways, including activities and technologies such as: forestry, industrial processes, transportation, urban development, construction and farming. When an ecosystem is changed by human activity, there can be unexpected consequences. please read p 60 - 61 Pest Control Pests that can affect human health and crops are a major problem. Besides controlling the pest population a pesticide can also damage other organisms that are not targeted. Biological Control
Using their own natural enemies is another way to control pests. This method is known as biological control what do you think is bad about introducing a new species to manage another? Biological control can however cause other problems. read pages 62- 63 Species In Danger Topic 7 :
Monitoring p. 68- 79 Ecosystems,
Wildlife The word Environment can mean: Monitoring can be done in 4 ways Physical Monitoring
Biological Monitoring Physical Monitoring uses Satellites
to track changes over time... Ever wonder what a Hurricane looks like from space? Environmental Monitoring
tracks changes in climate,
temperature, and weather patterns. Chemical Monitoring
watches the quality of the
air, soil, and water Last, but not least, is the Biological Monitoring! This monitors the changes in organisms (this can be population, or growth) Why Should
we Monitor? Hurrianes!
Chemical Spills! Continuous monitoring gives us the scientific data we need to make informed decisions about how we affect the environment over time. Monitoring involves the use of indicators and indicator species. The presence or absence of the indicator or of an indicator species reflects environmental conditions. Can you please explain in your own words why Frogs and other Amphibians are good indicator species? read pages 68- 70 Baseline Data gives scientists a starting point to compare changes in the environment. Scientists to monitor change use permanent plots, or study areas. The report that provides the data that has been collected - identifying how a certain activity will affect the environment - is called an Environmental Impact Assessment. please read p. 74 and page 78 Topic 6-7 WRAP UP
#1 to #8 www.superteachertools.com/jeopardy/makegamex.php