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Nanophotonics and Metamaterials

Lecture of Course: Principles of Nanophotonics
by

Laura Pulido

on 18 November 2013

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Transcript of Nanophotonics and Metamaterials

Giving light a second hand [1]
Nanophotonics and Metamaterials
Electromagnetic Response
of Materials
Interaction Light-Matter
Metamaterials
Photonic Crystals
Maxwell Equations
Phenomena
Metamaterials are unique materials made by humans that can be engineered to exhibit properties not readily found in nature.
wavelength << Structure size
wavelength~ Structure size
wavelength >> Structure size
Parameters
permitivity: Lorentz Model
Laura Maria Pulido Mancera
Física
Universidad Nacional de Colombia
Curso. Principios Básicos de Nanotecnología. Universidad de los Andes

[1] https://nanohub.org/resources/1991
PROPERTIES
Applications
FABRICATION
LIMITATIONS
PROPERTIES
NANOPHOTONICS OVERVIEW
permeability: Very small variations at optical frequencies.
APPLICATIONS
FABRICATION
http://www.espectador.com/noticias/252368/logran-hacer-invisible-un-objeto-por-primera-vez
behavior of light on the nanometer scale
light confining structures
that can slow down, trap, enhance
manipulate
light.
Q. Bao, L Loh. Graphene Photonics,Plasmonics and Broadband Optoelectronic Devices. Acs Nano vol 6, No 5 3677-3694. 2012
OPTOELECTRONICS PLASMONICS
Polarizers
Optical Modulators
Photodetectors
Saturable Absorber
Photodiodes
Surface Plasmon diode,
Organic Plasmon emitting diode
LEDs
Y splitters
ISSUES TO ADDRESS...
• What happens when light shines on a material?






• Why do materials have characteristic colors?Absorption




• Why are some materials transparent and others not?
Reflection and Transmission coefficients
THE REFRACTIVE INDEX IS GIVEN BY THE PERMITIVITY!
Photonic crystals can be fabricated for one, two, or three dimensions. One-dimensional photonic crystals can be made of layers deposited or stuck together; two-dimensional ones can be made by drilling holes in a suitable substrate, and three-dimensional ones by, for example, stacking spheres in a matrix and dissolving the spheres.
The major challenge in fabrication of these structures, is sufficient precision to prevent scattering losses blurring the crystal properties and with processes that can be robustly mass produced.

2D:
periodic photonic crystals is a photonic-crystal fiber, such as a "holey fiber" and photonic crystal slab. These structures consist of a slab of material (such as silicon) which can be patterned using techniques borrowed from the semiconductor industry.
3D:
photolithography and etching techniques similar to those used for integrated circuits.
Cloaking ans Superlenses!
THANKS!
Questions/ Comments
Transistors
Waveguides
Photonic Crystal Lasers (Nanocavities)
Fiber Optics
Sensors
Microwaves
Optics
Info: Course of Nanophotonics
www.nanohub.org

Purdue University (Shalaev)
Duke University (R. Smith)
Imperial College London (J. Pendry)
Berkeley University (Yablonovitch)
Pensilvania (Engheta)
Universidad de Sevilla (R. Marqués)
Universidad Nacional de Colombia (J. Baena)
2D : Electron Beam Lithography
Focused ion-beam milling
Interference Litography
Nanoimprint Litography
2D: PCB technology:
photo-etching technique
3D: Making multiple layers
EBL: High Fabrication costs and small areas (100 microns2)
FIB: Matching with other structures
OL and NIL: low cost, large area (~cm2)
Full transcript