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Father involvement and race
Transcript of Father involvement and race
Fathers' Involvement in Students' Schooling
Alison, Kate, Jason, Anna
EDUC 5726 Fall 2012
Procedures, & Application
Significance & Application
There are strong correlations between family involvement and student achievement in regards to race and income (Desimone, 1999).
The level of parental involvement varies between ethnic groups (Coleman, 1988; Yan, 1999).
Involved fathers promote student achievement, but many fathers are relatively uninvolved in their children's schools (Nord, Brimhall, & West, 1997).
Parents' trust level of teachers decreases as students move from elementary to middle school (Adams and Christenson, 2000).
Parents of all incomes and races want to be involved with their child(ren)'s school, but the current offerings may not be the most engaging (Dervarics and O'Brien, 2011).
Epstein's 4 of 6 Types of Parent Involvement:
3. Learning at Home
Cross-sectional systematic social/behavioral investigation using qualitative/quantitative survey questionnaire
Will code survey responses across statistically significant population
Pertinent ethical principles and procedures will be adopted from Human Research Committee and university’s Institutional Review Board
No consequential conflicts of interest exist among researchers
All potential participants will be given the appropriate information for informed consent
We will include all risks and benefits associated with this study
We will strive for fair sampling of the population
We will ensure confidentiality of subjects
Various benefits of participation in the study include:
Discovering new ways to be involved in child's schooling
Helping educators and curriculum/policy makers develop better learning strategies and methods for child
The probability and magnitude of harm or discomfort anticipated in the research are not greater in and of themselves than those ordinarily encountered in daily life
Hispanic and Asian fathers may have low scores, on direct involvement with school sponsored activities.
Conversley, White or African-American fathers may have higher scores.
Hispanic and Asian fathers may have higher scores on the extracurricular learning activities and parent/child involvement.
White fathers may have high scores in all four categories.
There may a high score among all races in the category of educator/school official involvement.
Our study will:
All biological, adoptive, or step fathers of all 6th grade students
Sample from the four Title I middle schools in the same district
70% of students on free/reduced lunch
Study the four races of highest average percentage found in four schools:
Data Collection Methods
Merits & Limitations
Survey questionnaire designed using Qualtrics
Various question formats: index, labeled bipolar, open-ended, and varying Likert scales
Hardcopy surveys will be given to fathers attending the fall semester individual Parent-Teacher conferences in mid-October
Hardcopy mail-in surveys will be mailed home for fathers who do not attend the PT conferences
Surveys will also contain a weblink to a web-based version of the survey so fathers can fill out the survey online to maximize response rate
Surveys will be given a unique identification number to eliminate redundancy in completion and to ensure confidentiality
We will rely on the participants’ initiative in participating in this study and thus the participants could arguably be self-selecting.
We can only generalize our findings to low-income, English-speaking populations.
All our group members are white, middle class, American students.
Controlling for the following confounds:
Philosophy of schools*
School mean socioeconomic status (SES)*
Intake composition (racial makeup) of schools*
Experience and age/race/gender of teachers*
Age of fathers and students* **
Fathers' school experiences**
Fathers' level of education & occupation**
Availability of involvement types at all schools**
Various races of fathers
& consequent type/extent of fathers involvement
How and to what extent are low-income English-speaking fathers involved in their children's schooling?
How does race affect that involvement?
To assess the impact that race has on fathers' involvement with their children's schooling
Adams, K.S., & Christenson, K.L. (2000). Trust and the family: School relationship examination of parent-teacher differences in elementary and secondary grades. Journal of School Psychology, 38(5), 477-497
Coleman, J.S. (1988). Social capital in the creation of human capital. American Journal of Sociology, 94, 95-120.
Desimone, L. (1999). Linking family involvement to student achievement: Do Race adn Income matter? The Journal of Educational Research, 93(1), 11-30.
Dervarics, C. and O'Brien, E. (2011) Back to school: How parent involvement affects student achievement (full report), Center for Public Education. Retreived August 30, 2011 from http://www.centerforpubliceducation.org/Main-Menu/Public-education/Parent-Involvement/Parent-Involvement.html
Hill, N.E., & Craft, S.A. (2003). Parent-school involvement and school performance: Mediated pathways among socioeconomically comparable African-American and Euro-American familes. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95(1), 74-83.
Hoover-Dempsey, K.V., & Sandler, H.M. (1997). Why do parents become involved in their children's education? Review of Educational Research, 67(1), 3-42.
Nord, C.W., Brimhall, D., & West, J. (1997). Fathers' involvement in their children's schools (NCES 98-091). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics.
Trotman, M.F. (2001). Involving the African-American parent: Recommendations to increase the level of parent involvement within African-American families. The Journal of Negro Education 70(4), 275-285.
Yan, W. (1999). Successful African-American students: The role of Parental involvement. The Journal of Negro Education, 68(1), 5-22.
Our 4 Types of
3. School-sponsored activities
4. Extracurricular educational activities
Definition of "Involvement"
The active, ongoing participation of a child’s parent(s) or guardian(s) as well as a parent's investment of resources (i.e. time) the child's education (Sheldon, 2002).
Defining levels of involvement
Low: 0 or 1 activities
Medium: at least 2
High: 3 or 4 activities
Low: 2 or fewer hours/month
Medium: at least 4 hours/month
High: at least 8 hours/month
Defining types of involvement
Father involvement in education, particularly across races, is not studied very well.
Other races and their involvement are often explained through a negative framework, i.e. why parents aren’t involved, versus how parents could be involved.
Studies done on fathers’ involvement do not usually focus on how they are involved extra-curricularly or in home-learning activities.
Many studies do not control for language among Asian and Hispanic parents.
Our study will be mixed-methods: initial survey research and additional qualitative research to give responses depth and substance through follow-up interviews and home visits
It will provide information about they ways in which fathers are involved in education across race.
It will shed light on the parent-school relationship at an important transitional time for students and parents.
help educators understand how to involve fathers of different races in the school community and home-school partnership
promote schools to think of innovative and racially conscientious ways to involve fathers
contribute to the retention of the school-family connection through a major transition by determining the most and least prevalent activities father’s of each race participate in
show how race influences the type and extent of fathers' involvement.
**Native Americans and other races
comprise <1% of populations
* controlled through sample population
** controlled for by survey questionnaire