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Trends in Periodic table
Transcript of Trends in Periodic table
Arrangement of the periodic table
The periodic table is arranged in periods and groups. Periods refer to the horizontal rows. Elements in the same period have the same number of atomic orbitals or shells. The shells increase by one down the periods. There are 7 periods.
Arrangement of Periodic Table
The special name for the columns of the Periodic Table are groups. The elements in the same group have the same number of valence electrons. The periodic table is also arranged according chemical properties, trends and behaviors.
Groups and Periods
Groups and Periods are ways to categorize elements on the Periodic Table. The atomic number increases both down a group and across a period.
Elements in the same group (vertical) have the same number of valence electrons. Elements in the same period (horizontal) have the same number of shells.
Core charge refers to the force of attraction experienced by the valence electrons to the core of the atom which contains protons and neutrons.
Core charge = protons – non-valence electrons
Core charge is always a positive number
Core charge is related to the attraction between protons and electrons.
Therefore Core charge increases across a period, and stays the same down a group.
Noble gases tend to be ignored for core charge
Atomic radius/ size
The atomic radius is the measure of an element's atom size.
Atomic radius decreases across a period, and increases down a group
Atomic radius decreases down a period because despite the fact that the amount of occupied shells remains the same, the number of protons and electrons increase, drawing the electron closer due to the increased core charge
Atomic radius increase when going down a group because the core charge is constant but the amount of occupied shell increases. There is less force holding the electron together, so they become more distant and apart
First Ionisation energy
The First Ionization Energy refers to the minimum amount of energy (kJ mol-1)
First ionisation energy increases across a period, and decreases down a group
It is harder to remove electrons from non-metals as they wish to receive not donate electrons. There is also a stronger core-charge, making the removal of electrons more difficult.
First Ionisation energy decreases down the period because the electrons are less effected by core charge, meaning that they are more loosely held together. This makes it easy to take electrons.
Ionic Radius/Size is the measure of an atom's radius. The exact distance can be determined by X-ray crystallography,
The radius of the atom decreases when losing electrons. It increases when gaining electrons
Atomic radius decrease when losing electrons, because there is one less electron shielding the others from the core charge, making it smaller. Similarly, when one electron is added to the atom, there is one more electron protecting the other electrons from core charge, making the atom bigger.
Electronegativity is the measure of an atom's ability to attract electrons towards itself.
Electronegativity increases across a period, and decreases down a group
The core charge increases across the period, meaning there is increasingly larger force of attraction between the electrons and the core of the atom. This force attracts electrons.
The electronegativity decreases down a group because the electrons are more spread apart due to the increasing occupied shells. This distance reduces the attraction.
It used for covalently-bonded molecules (bond between metal and non-metal.
Metallic characteristics are properties associated with substances that are metal. It is related to how readily metals lose their electrons.Metallic character decreases as you move across a period in the periodic table from left to right. This is because elements wants to gain instead of lose electrons. Metallic character increases as you move down an element group in the periodic table. This is because there is a larger atomic radius, and less core charge.
Shiny 'metallic' appearance
Solids at room temperature (except mercury)
High melting points
Large atomic radii
Low ionization energies
Usually, high deformation