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Afghanistan's Government

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Khendra Robins

on 10 April 2013

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Transcript of Afghanistan's Government

0 + - = 9 8 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 c Bibliography http://www.parl.gc.ca/Content/LOP/researchpublications/prb0716-e.htm#system
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Babrak_Karmal http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mohammad_Najibullah
http://afghanistan.saarctourism.org/economy.html Made By Caitlyn, Mrunali, Maitry, and Khendra Meshrano Jirga The Systems of Government The Islamic Republic of Afghanistan is divided into 34 Provinces.
The President is Head of State, and Legislative power is vested in the Bicameral National Assembly.
Candidates who receive the most votes in each province win seats in the House of Elders.
Each vote is non-transferable Info on Afghanistan's infulecial Figures in Government Mohammed Daoud Khan
Over though the monarchy of his first cousin Mohammed Zahir Shah known for his progressive policies, especially in relation to the rights of women and for initiating two five-year modernization plans which increased the labor force by about 50 percent. However, he was also criticized for heavy repression of dissent.

Nur Muhammad Taraki
The assassination of Mir Akbar Khyber led Taraki, along with Hafizullah Amin (the organiser of the revolution) and Babrak Karmal, to initiate the Saur Revolution and establish the communist Democratic Republic of Afghanistan The presidency of Taraki, albeit short-lived, was marked by controversies from beginning to end. Taraki launched a land reform on 1 January 1978 which proved to be highly unpopular and, along with his government's other reforms, led to a popular backlash which initiated the Afghan civil war. Despite repeated attempts throughout his reign, Taraki proved unable to persuade the Soviet Union to intervene in support of the restoration of civil order. His reign was marked by a cult of personality centered around himself that had been cultivated by Amin. His relationship with Amin turned sour during his rule, ultimately resulting in Taraki's murder on 14 September 1979, upon Amin's orders.

Babrak Karmal
Before, during and after his career as a bureaucrat Karmal was a leading member of the Afghan movement. When the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) was formed, Karmal became one of its leading members, and eventually became the leader of the Parcham faction.Karmal was appointed Deputy Chairman of the Revolutionary Council, synonymous with vice head of state, in the communist government.The Parchamite faction found itself squeezed by the Khalqists soon after taking power and shortly after PDPAC central Committee meeting voted in favour of giving the Khalqist faction exclusive right to formulate and decide PDPA policy. This decision was followed by a failed Parchamite coup, which in turn led Hafizullah Amin, a Khalqist, to initiate a purge against the Parchamites. Karmal survived this purge and was sent to exile in Prague. Karmal would remain in exile until December 1979, when the Soviet Union intervened in Afghanistan to stabilise the situation in the country, they killed Amin, the leader of the PDPA and the Afghan government.

Mohammad Najibullah Ahmadzai
He had previously held different careers under the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA).He was a member of the Parcham faction led by Babrak Karmal. During Najibullah's tenure as KHAD head, it became one of the most efficient governmental organs.In 1981, Najibullah was appointed to the PDPA Politburo. In 1985 Najibullah stepped down as state security minister to focus on PDPA politics; he had been appointed to the PDPA Secretariat For a number of months Najibullah was locked in a power struggle against Karmal, who still retained his post of Chairman of the Revolutionary Council. Najibullah accused Karmal of trying to wreck his policy of National Reconciliation. his government tried to solve the ongoing civil war without Soviet troops on the ground. While direct Soviet assistance ended with the withdraw, the Soviet Union still supported Najibullah with economic and military aid, while the United States continued its support for the mujahideen.Najibullah lived in the United Nations headquarters in Kabul until 1996, when the Taliban took Kabul. In 1996 Najibullah is said to have been castrated by the Taliban, and was dragged behind a truck in the streets of Kabul, before he was publicly hanged.

Burhanuddin Rabbani
After the Taliban government was toppled during Operation Enduring Freedom, Rabbani returned to Kabul and served as a temporary President from November to December 20, 2001, when Hamid Karzai was chosen at the Bonn International Conference on Afghanistan. Rabbani was also the leader of Jamiat-e Islami Afghanistan (Islamic Society of Afghanistan), which has close ties to Pakistan's Jamaat-e-Islami.
He was one of the earliest founders and movement leaders of the Mujahideen in the late 1970s, right before the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. He served as the political head of the United Islamic Front for the Salvation of Afghanistan (UIFSA), an alliance of various political groups who fought against the Taliban in Afghanistan. His government was recognized by many countries, as well as the United Nations. He later became head of Afghanistan National Front (known in the media as United National Front), the largest political opposition to Hamid Karzai's government
Mullah Mohammed OmarWas the spiritual leader of the Taliban. He was Afghanistan's de facto head of state from 1996 to late 2001, under the official title "Head of the Supreme Council". He held the title Commander of the Faithful of the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan, which was recognized by only three nations: Pakistan, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates. He is thought to be living somewhere in Pakistan. Current leader What Does Afghanistan Export? Afghanistan is one of the most mineral-rich countries in the world, and with its mineral deposits, Afghanistan has the potential to be the richest mining area in the world. Influential People of Afghanistan's Government Afghanistan's Government Today The Economy of Afghanistan A Look into the government system in the past 50 years 30% of the Country holds
$3 Trillion in mineral deposits House of Elders The Wolesi-Jirga which holds 249 seats is directly elected.
There are 34 multi-member groups with 2-33 members each.
Ten seats are reserved for Kuchis, and at least 68 seats are reserved for women.
Candidates who receive the most votes in their respective provinces win seats.
The Term on the Wolesi Jirga is five years. Wolesi Jirga The Meshrano Jirga is made up of one person from each of the 34 provincial councils, one from the 34 local district councils, and 34 members appointed by the president.Two seats each are reserved for representatives of the Kuchi Nomads and the disabledAt least 17 seats are reserved for women Members chosen by the provincial and district councls serve four year termsMembers appointed by the president serve for five years. President Both the president and two vice presidents are directly elected for a five year term, and each president may only be elected for two terms.
If no candidates receive 50% or more of the vote, the second round consists of the two candidates with the most votes. and Vice Presidents 1953 - 1963 Mohammed Daoud Khan was prime minister of Afghanistan then from 1973 - 1978 Mohammed Daoud Khan was President of the republic of Afghanistan
1978 - 1979 Nur Muhammad Taraki was the Chairmen of the Revolutionary council of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan
1979 - 1986 Babrak Karmal was Chairmen of the Revolutionary Council of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan
1987 - 1992 Mohammad Najibullah Ahmadza was President of the Republic of Afghanistan
1992 - 1996 Burhanuddin Rabbani was President of the Islamic state of Afghanistan
1992 - 2001 Burhanuddin Rabbani was President of the Northern Alliance of Afghanistan
2001 - 2001 Burhanuddin Rabbani was President of the Transitional islamic State of of Afghanistan
1996 - 2001 Mullah Mohammed Omar was the Chairmen of the Supreme council of the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan
2001 - 2004 Hamid Karzai was the President of the Transitional Islamic state of Afghanistan
2004 - incumbent Hamid Karzai is the President of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Economic History: Hamid Karzai is the 12th and current President of Afghanistan, taking office on 22 December 2001. He became a dominant political figure after the removal of the Taliban regime in late 2001. During the December 2001 International Conference on Afghanistan in Germany, Karzai was selected by prominent Afghan political figures to serve a six-month term as Chairman of the Interim Administration. He was then chosen for a two-year term as Interim President during the 2002 loya jirga (grand assembly) that was held in Kabul, Afghanistan. After the 2004 presidential election, Karzai was declared winner and became President of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. He won a second five-year term in the 2009 presidential election. The Afghan monarchs were eager to develop the stature of government and military, and so they attempted to raise money by state monopolies on sale of high taxes. Hamid Karzai Transport Infrastructure: LEADERS Government in Afghanistan has resulted in poor state of transport infrastructure. Although, after fall of Taliban, the UN supported their government in Kabul which has undertaken repair work on existing roads. Economic Development and Recovery: After 2002, rapid urban population growth and emergence of high unemployment, which triggered the planning of urban extension towards the form of a new city (north of Kabul).
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