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Moral Reasoning and the US Constitution

Belenky & Kohlberg

Kaycee Taylor

on 5 November 2013

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Transcript of Moral Reasoning and the US Constitution

Draw a picture, diagram, create a mnemonic device or memory palace story to help you remember these level- you have 5 minutes
You have 90 seconds to talk to your neighbors to come up with a response
If someone if your group is wearing black, please be ready to respond
Kohlberg's Moral Reasoning. and The US Constitution
What are Morals
attitudes or beliefs people hold that help them decide what is right or wrong
Morality- is determined by norms and rules that are set by culture and internalized since birth
Kohlberg’s Ideas
We are all born without morals
what is the term for that??

Call out if you know the term
John Locke had similar ideas
Kohlberg Wanted to address how we acquire morals
Moral development occur in stages
These stages are unique and different from one another
Check in...what does this mean?
Check in...what does that mean?
Stages are preprotent – children understand all stages below and can’t understand any stage above them until they are ready
make sure you understand this idea
Kohlberg found
six (or 7) stages
each of which he divided into
III moral levels
Level II Conventional
Level III Postconventional
moral reasoning is based on punishments and external rewards
Moral reasoning is based on 'good girl/boy', and following laws/rules because they are laws and rules
Moral reasoning based on individual rights and ethical standards
Universal principles
flexible Social Order
the individual: Obedience and punishment orientation
Has no sense of obligation to anyone else
Remember The Seagulls
Is self-absorbed (unaware or anyone’s needs other than those that are self-serving)
& Ratcliff
Is typically between the ages of 0-7
Obeys rules in order to avoid punishment
•Determines a sense of right and wrong by what is punished and what is not punished
Leonard and Sheldon show the way
Level 1 Continued
Obeys superior authority and allows that authority to make the rules, especially if that authority has the power to inflict pain

Is responsive to rules that will
affect his/her physical well-bein
efforts to enforce and effort to resist...
Mr. Veron and Bender in "The Breakfast club"
the individual: is motivated by vengeance or an eye for an eye philosophy
Believes in equal sharing in that everyone gets the same, regardless of need
Will do a favor only to get a favor
Expects to be rewarded for every non-selfish deed he/she does
Quid Pro Quo
Latin: This for That
usually over the age of 10
Stage 1 – oriented with punishment and obedience
•Consequences of actions determine right or wrong
•Fear of Punishment
Talk to 2 people next to you to come up with a 2-3 sentence summary of Level I, Stages 1-2
Stage 2 – More oriented with other’s needs
•Behaves morally to get moral behavior in return
Question: How might this idea relate to the US Constitution?
You have 90 seconds to talk to your neighbors. If you are wearing any Spartan colors be prepared to respond
The Levels I-III
Level II Stages 3-4
Morality of Conventional Role Conformity – Child’s interpersonal relationships now important
What that means is...
Stage 3 – Behaves morally
to live up to other’s expectations
Stage 4 – Respects law and order
•Whatever that is a law is good

Thus models behavior on that of the ―majority‖
which is the behavior of the ―in crowd‖ or peer group
At this stage, the individual:
Finds peer approval very important
Makes moral decisions on the basis of what will please a limited group and make the person feel included
At this stage, the individual
Is a duty doer who believes in rigid rules that should not be changed
Respects authority and obeys it without question
Supports the rights of the majority or majority rule without concern for those in the minority
about 80% of the population does not progress past stage 4
Talk to 2 people next to you to come up with a 2-3 sentence summary of Level II, Stages 3-4
Stage 3 – Behaves morally to live up to other’s expectations
•Often referred to as the "good boy-good girl" orientation
There is an emphasis on conformity, being "nice," and consideration of how choices influence relationships.
Stage 4 - Maintaining Social Order At this stage of moral development, people begin to consider society as a whole when making judgments
Level III Stages 5-6
Morality of Self-Accepted Moral Principles – morality takes a more societal view
Stage 5 – Recognizes some
laws are better than others
•Sometimes what its moral
is not legal and vice versa
• Still follows laws
At this stage, the individual:
Is motivated by the belief
in the greatest amount of
good for the greatest number of people
Believes in contracts
in which both parties
compromise and yet both
receive benefits
Believes in consensus
(everyone agrees), rather
than in majority rule
Respects the rights of the
minority especially the rights of the individual
Believes that change in the law is possible but only through the system
At this stage, the individual
Loses the ability to compromise high principles and thus may forfeit his/her life in order to uphold them
Believes that there
are higher moral principles
than those represented by
social rules and customs
Is willing to accept the consequences for disobedience of the social rule he/she has rejected
Uses only passive resistance and has no use for violence in any form
Believes in granting justice and dignity to all human beings as inalienable human rights
Respects justice for its moral nature and its legal nature
Talk to 2 people next to you to come up with a 2-3 sentence summary of Level II, Stages 5-6
Stage 5 - Social Contract and Individual Rights
At this stage, people begin to account for the differing values, opinions and beliefs of other people. Rules of law are important for maintaining a society, but members of the society should agree upon these standards.
Stage 6 - Universal Principles
Kolhberg’s final level of moral reasoning is based upon universal ethical principles and abstract reasoning. At this stage, people follow these internalized principles of justice, even if they conflict with laws and rules.
Final Thoughts/questions:
Where would you place the Transcendentalists? Where would you place the Framers of the Constitution?
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