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Fausto Levantesi

on 29 March 2013

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430,961,269 ya 763,858,961 ya 243,143,859 ya 137,179,233 ya 77,395,094 ya 43,665,506 ya 24,635,624 ya 13,899,162 ya 7,841,763 ya 4,424,241 ya 2,496,111 ya 1,408,280 ya 794,537 ya 448,269 ya 252,909 ya 142,689 ya 80,503 ya 45,419 ya 25,625 ya 14,457 ya 8,157 ya - 6,146 BC 2,591 BC 585 BC 547 AD 1,186 AD 1,546 AD 1,749 AD 1,864 AD 1,928 AD 1,965 AD 28/04/1986 AD 06/12/1997 AD 29/06/2004 AD 07/03/2008 AD 09/04/2010 AD 14/06/2011 AD 10/02/2012 AD 03/07/2012 AD 12/09/2012 AD 24/10/2012 AD 20/11/2012 AD 03/12/2012 AD 11/12/2012 AD 21/12/2012 AD 573,753,857 ya 323,705,950 ya 182,631,602 ya 103,038,848 ya 58,133,444 ya 32,798,284 ya 18,504,450 ya 10,440,018 ya 5,890,150 ya 3,323,161 ya 1.874,893 ya 1,057,795 ya 596,797 ya 336,706 ya 189,966 ya 107,177 ya 60,468 ya 34,115 ya 19,248 ya 10,859 ya 4,115 BC 1,445 BC 62 AD 912 AD 1.392 AD 1,662 AD 1,814 AD 1,901 AD 1,949 AD 1,977 AD 04/09/2001 AD 24/12/1992 AD 06/08/2006 AD 16/05/2009 AD 10/12/2010 AD 30/10/2011 AD 29/04/2012 AD 09/08/2012 AD 07/10/2012 AD 08/11/2012 AD 28/11/2012 AD 07/12/2012 AD Ani/1) Kingdom Metazoa (Multicellular chemoorganoheterotrophic organism that develops from embryos and possesses motility at some point in its life cycle, have Mendelian genetics and are diploids with gametic meiosis) > clade/subkingdom Parazoa > clade/phylum Porifera > clade/subphylum Symplasma > class Hexactinellida/glass sponges (lecithotrophic larvae with effective-stroke cilia and locomotory polarity, lacks contractile cells, syncytia, plugged junctions that resemble gap-junctions, hermaphroditism, intracellular digestion) Ani/2) clade/subphylum Cellularia/Pinacophora
class Demospongiae (skin-like pinacoderm consisting of discrete cells with few if any junctions between them, internal digestion)
class Calcarea (partially sealed epithelia, primitive desmosome-like junctions, larval ciliated cell with striated root, intracellular digestion) Transcendental/Critical Idealism/Kantianism and Neo-Kantianism: Immanuel Kant (1724-1804), African Spir (1837-1890) Marquis de Sade (1740-1814) Ancient materialism (800 - 200 BC) deriva dallo stadio precedente????? Stoicism (301 BC - 180 AD) Peripatetic school (334 BC - 200 AD) Platonism: Platonic Academy (387-90BC), Middle Platonism (90BC-160AD), Neoplatonism (160-526AD) Scientific revolution and Classical mechanics : Johannes Kepler (1571-1630), Galileo Galilei (1564-1641), Nicolaus Copernicus (1573-1643), Francis Bacon (1561-1626), Isaac Newton (1642-1727) General theory of relativity: Albert Einstein (1879 - 1955) Old quantum theory: Max Planck (1858 - 1947), Niels Bohr (1885-1962) Causal/Nomological/Physical determinism, Logical Positivism and Scientism: Pierre-Simon Laplace 1749-1827), Henri de Saint-Simon (1760-1825), Auguste Comte (1798-1857) Renaissance Humanism: Petrarch (1304-1375), Nicholas of Kues (1401-1464), Giovanni Boccaccio (1313-1375), Cosimo de' Medici (1389-1464), Marsilio Ficino (1433–1499), Erasmus of Rotterdam (1466-1536), Ludovico Ariosto (1474-1533), Thomas More (1478-1535), Raphael Sanzio (1483-1520), Pietro Aretino (1492-1556), François Rabelais (c.1494-1553), Leonardo da Vinci(1452-1519), Michelangelo (1475-1564) Age of Enlightenment (deism, rationalism, mechanism, empiricism, materialism, reductionism): Hugo Grotius (1583-1645), Thomas Hobbes (1588 - 1679), René Descartes (1596 - 1650), Baruch Spinoza (1632-1677), John Locke (1632-1704), Nicolas Malebranche (1638-1715), Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716), Ludvig Holberg (1684-1754), Montesquieu (1689-1755), Voltaire (1694-1778), Julien Offray de La Mettrie (1709 - 1751), David Hume (1711-1776), Claude Adrien Helvétius (1715-1771), Jean le Rond d'Alembert (1717-1783), Denis Diderot (1713-1784), Baron d'Holbach (1723-1789)??? Naturalism: Bernardino Telesio (1509-1588), Giordano Bruno (1548-1600), Tommaso Campanella (1568-1639), Pierre Gassendi (1592-1655), François de La Rochefoucauld (1613-1680), Cyrano de Bergerac (1619-1655), Blaise Pascal (1623-1662), Giambattista Vico (1668-1744) Ancient hedonism (399BC-55BC): Cyrenaic school, Epicureanism Utilitarianism and Classical Economics: Adam Smith (1723-1790), Edmund Burke (1729-1797), Cesare Beccaria (1738-1794), Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832), Jean-Baptiste Say (1767-1832), Thomas Robert Malthus (1866-1834), David Ricardo (1772-1823), John Stuart Mill (1806-1873) Romanticism, German Idealism and Modern Teleology: Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778), Johann Gottlieb Fichte (1762-1814), Friedrich Schleiermacher (1768-1834), Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770-1831), Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1772-1834), Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling (1775-1854), Stendhal (1783-1842), Arthur Schopenhauer (1788-1860), Giacomo Leopardi (1798-1837), Ludwig Andreas von Feuerbach (1804–1872) French revolution (1789-1799)
American Revolution (1774-1791) Process philosophy: Henri Bergson (1859-1941), Alfred North Whitehead (1861-1947) Biological organicism: Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1744-1829), Rudolf Virchow (1821-1902) Holism, Evolutionism and Psychophysics: James Hutton (1726-1797), Alexander von Humboldt (1769-1859), Gustav Fechner (1801-1887), Charles Lyell (1797-1875), Charles Darwin (1809-1882), Ernst Haeckel (1834-1919) Ancient Republicanism 4ceBC-2ceAD Classical Republicanism/Civic Humanism: Niccolò Machiavelli (1469–1527), Francesco Guicciardini (1482-1540) High Scholasticism: Albertus Magnus (1193-1280), Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274), Duns Scotus (1266-1308), Bonaventure (1221-1274), William of Ockham (1288-1348) Sturm und Drang/Weimar Classicism: Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749–1832), Friedrich Schiller (1759–1805), Johann Gottfried Herder (1744–1803) Thomas Reid (1710-1796) Étienne Bonnot de Condillac (1715-1780) Physiocrats Subjective idealism/Immaterialism/Phenomenalism: George Berkeley (1685-1753) Classical idealism (480BC-526AD) Existentialism: Martin Heidegger (1889-1976), Karl Jaspers (1883-1969), Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-1980), Albert Camus (1913-1960) Nihilism and Existentialism: Søren Kierkegaard (1813-1855), Nihilist Russian Movement (1860-1869) Modern Sociology: Karl Marx (1818-1883), Friedrich Engels (1820-1895), Herbert Spencer (1820–1903), Emile Durkheim (1858-1917), Georg Simmel (1858-1918), Max Weber (1864-1920) Pragmatism and Naturalism: Charles Sanders Peirce (1839-1914), John Dewey (1859-1952) Objective idealism: Josiah Royce (1855-1916), Benedetto Croce (1866-1952), George Edward Moore (1873-1958), Giovanni Gentile (1875-1944) Anatole France (1844-1924) Spiritism and Vitalism: Emanuel Swedenborg (1788-1872), Franz Mesmer (1734-1815), Fox sisters (1838-1893), Antoine Lavoisier (1743-1894), Allan Kardec (1804-1869) Renaissance Occultism: Giovanni Pico della Mirandola (1463-1494), Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa (1486–1535) Society of Jesus: Ignatius of Loyola (1491-1556), Francis Xavier (1506-1552), Peter Faber (1506-1546) Rosicrucianism: Christian Rosenkreuz (17th ce.), Robert Fludd (1574-1637) Freemasonry: William Schaw (1550-1602), Benjamin Franklin 1706-1790) Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn: Samuel Liddell MacGregor Mathers (1854-1918), Aleister Crowley (1875-1947) Enlightenment theosophy (1650-1775) Theosophical Society and Anthroposophy: Helena Blavatsky (1831–1891), Rudolf Steiner (1861–1925) Hermeticism and Gnosticism Modern Psychology: Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920), William James (1842-1910), Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850-1909), Franz Brentano (1838-1917), Gustave Le Bon (1841-1931), Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936), Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) Anarchism, Socialism, Libertarianism and Individualism: William Godwin (1756-1836), Robert Owen (1771-1858), Charles Fourier (1772-1837), Josiah Warren (1798-1874), Max Stirner (1806-1856), Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (1809-1865), Henry David Thoreau (1817-1862), Michail Bakunin (1814-1876) Radicalism, republicanism, liberalism, whiggery: Richard Price (1723-1791), Joseph Priestley (1733-1804), Thomas Paine (1737-1809) Otto von Bismarck (1815-1898) Realpolitik and Mercantilism/Origin of Capitalism: Cardinal Richelieu (1585-1642), Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658) First Turkish or Türk Empire (552-581)
Second Turkish or Türk empire (683-734) Deconstructionism and Post-Structuralism: Jacques Lacan (1901-1981), Roland Barthes (1915-1980), Michel Foucault (1926-1984), Jacques Derrida (1930-2004) Structuralism: Claude Lévi-Strauss (1908-2009)??? Modern Linguistics: Ferdinand de Saussure (1857–1913 Logicism/Logical Empiricism: Gottlob Frege (1848-1925), Josiah Royce (1855-1916), Edmund Husserl (1859-1938), Bertrand Russell (1872-1970), George Edward Moore (1873-1958), Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889-1951), Vienna Circle (1907-1929) Baroque style (1590-1725) Algebraic Logic: Johann Heinrich Lambert (1728-1777), George Peacock (1791-1858), John Herschel (1792-1871), Charles Babbage (1791-1871), George Boole (1815-1864), Ada Lovelace (1815-1852), Augustus De Morgan (1806-1871) Alchemy: Ramon Llull (1232-1315) Phrenology: Franz Joseph Gall (1758-1828) Term/Traditional/Aristotelian Logic Early Islamic Philosophy: Al-Kindi (801-873), Al-Farabi (872-950), Avicenna (980-1037), Ibn Bājjah (1095-1138), Ibn Tufail (1105-1185), Averroes (1126-1198), Maimonides (1135-1204) Order of Saint Benedict (from 530), Byzantine Iconoclasm (726-842), Orthodox consensus with the first seven ecumenical councils (787), Cluniac Reforms (from 910), East–West Schism (from 1053), Cistercians (1098), Investiture Controversy (1103-1107), Nine Crusades (1095-1272), Knights Templar (1119-1312), Waldensians (from 1177), Catharism/Albigensians (10th-14th ce.), Peter of Bruis (1131) Cathedral schools (from 527), Universities (from 1088) Romanesque architecture (6th-12th ce.) Gothic architecture (12th-16th ce.) Mendicant Orders (from 1209): Franciscans, Carmelites, Dominicans, Servite Order and Augustinians Medieval Inquisition (12th-16th ce.), Beguines and Beghards (13th-16th ce.), Joan of Arc (1412-1431), Conciliarism (15th ce.), Lollardy (1381-16th ce.), Hussites (14th ce.), Moravian Church (15th ce.), Thomas Müntzer (1489-1525) Spanish Inquisition, Roman Inquisition, Portuguese Inquisition (16th-18th ce.)
Protestant Reformation (from 16th ce.): Calvinist/Presbyterian, Puritan/Methodist, Lutheran/Neo-Lutheran, Hutterite/Baptist/Adventist, Anglican/Quackers/Congregational/Episcopal Classical Populism Early Scholasticism (from 787): Carolingian Renaissance (8th-9th ce.), Anselm of Canterbury (1033-1109), Peter Abelard (1079-1142), Bernard of Clairvaux (1090-1153), Peter Lombard (1096-1164) Liberalism: Karl Popper (1902-1994) Pragmatism: Willard Van Orman Quine (1908-2000) Empiricism: Gilles Deleuze (1925-1995) Tibetan Buddhism: Nyingma (from 760) Tibetan Buddhism: Rimé movement (from 19th ce.) Immanentism: Pope Pius X (1835-1914) Nouvelle Théologie: Pierre Teilhard de Chardin (1881-1955), Karl Rahner (1904-1984), Second Vatican Council (1962-1965) Great Awakening/Christian Revival: Seventh-day Adventists, Latter Day Saint movement, Pentecostals, Restoration Movement Jehovah's Witnesses (from 1881) Vatican City/Lateran Treaty (from 1929), Opus Dei (from 1928) Neo-Scholasticism (19th ce.) Supreme Leader of Iran: Ruhollah Khomeini (1902-1989)
Supreme Leader of North Korea: Kim Il-sung (1912-1994)
Máximo Líder of Cuba: Fidel Castro (1926-)
Conducător of Romania: Nicolae Ceaușescu (1918-1989)
Brother Leader and Guide of the Revolution of Lybia: Muammar Gaddafi (1942-2011) Führer of Germany: Adolf Hitler (1889-1945)
Duce of Italy: Benito Mussolini (1883-1945)
Vozhd of the Soviet Union: Joseph Stalin (1878-1953)
Caudillo of Spain: Francisco Franco (1892-1975) Radical behaviorism: Burrhus Frederic Skinner (1904-1990) Voluntarism, Emergentism, Complexity theory, Self-organizing systems, Cybernetics and Neural Network: Norbert Wiener (1894-1964), Ludwig von Bertalanffy (1901-1972)- Talcott Parsons (1902-1979), (1904-1985), Jacques Monod (1910-1976), Ilya Prigogine (1917-2003) Cultural and social anthropology/Cultural relativism: Edward Burnett Tylor (1832-1917), Andrew Lang (1844-1912), James George Frazer (1854-1941), Franz Boas (1858-1942), Bronisław Malinowski (1884-1942) Neoclassical Economics: Alfred Marshall (1842-1924), John Maynard Keynes (1883-1946) Methodological individualism: Austrian School of Economics Genetics, Biological determinism and Neo-Darwinism: Gregor Mendel (1822-1884), Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913), Thomas Henry Huxley (1825-1895), August Weismann (1834-1914), William Bateson (1861-1926) Stephen Jay Gould (1941-2002), Richard Dawkins (1941-) Neoclassical (economic) synthesis: Paul Anthony Samuelson (1915-2009)
Modern evolutionary synthesis: Julian Huxley (1887-1975), Ronald Fisher (1890-1962), J. B. S. Haldane (1892-1964), George Gaylord Simpson (1902-1984), Ernst Mayr (1904-1995) Incompleteness theorems: Kurt Gödel (1906-1978) Quantum mechanics: Werner Heisenberg (1901-1976), Erwin Schrödinger (1887-1961), Wolfgang Pauli (1900-1958) Agnosticism and Hedonism: Omar Khayyám (1048-1131)???? Supramoralism: Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900), Nikolai Fyodorovich Fyodorov (1829-1903) Futurism: Filippo Tommaso Marinetti (1876-1944) Transhumanism: FM-2030 (1930-2000) Animism: Georg Ernst Stahl (1659-1734) Constructivism: Jean Piaget (1896-1980) Agnosticism: Robert G. Ingersoll (1833-1899) Skepticism and Atheism: Johannes Scotus Eriugena (815-877), Al-Ghazali (1058-1111), Omar Khayyám (1048-1131) Skepticism: Michel de Montaigne (1533-1592) 13,772,000,000 ya 8,698,653,807 ya 5,494,233,086 ya 3,470,260,786 ya 2,191,881,876 ya 1,384,433,752 ya 874,434,354 ya 552,309,158 ya 348,848,835 ya 220,339,475 ya 139,170,550 ya 87,902,733 ya 55,521,016 ya 35,068,117 ya 22,149,681 ya 13,990,154 ya 8,836,444 ya 5,581,264 ya 3,525,231 ya 2,226,602 ya 1,406,364 ya 888,286 ya 561,058 ya 354,375 ya 223,830 ya 141,375 ya 89,295 ya 56,400 ya 35,624 ya 22,501 ya 14,212 ya 8,976 ya 5669.67 ya - 3658 BC 3581.07 ya - 1570 BC 2261.87 ya - 250 BC 1428.64 ya - 584 AD 901.36 ya - 1111 AD 569.95 ya - 1443 AD 359.99 ya - 1652 AD 227.38 ya - 1785 AD 143.61 ya - 1869 AD 90.71 ya - 1922 AD 57.29 ya - 1955 AD 36.19 ya - 1976 AD 22.86 ya - 1990 AD 14.44 ya - 1998 AD 9.12 ya - 2003 AD 5.76 ya - 2007 AD 3.64 ya - 11/05/2009 AD 2.30 ya - 2010 AD 1.45 ya - 10/07/2011 AD 0.917 ya - 11/01/2012 AD 0.579 ya - 24/05/2012 AD 0.366 ya - 134 da - 09/08/2012 AD 0.231 ya - 84 da - 28/09/2012 AD 0.146 ya - 53 da - 29/10/2012 AD 0.092 ya - 33.6 da - 18/11/2012 AD 0.058 ya - 21.18 da - 30/11/2012 AD 0.037 ya - 13.52 da - 08/12/2012 AD 0.023 ya - 8.4 da - 13/12/2012 AD 0.015 ya - 5.48 da - 16/12/2012 AD 0.00926 ya - 3.38 da - 18/12/2012 AD 0.00585 ya - 2.14 da - 19/12/2012 AD 0.00370 ya - 1.35 da - 20/12/2012 AD 0.00233 ya - 0.85 da - 21/12/2012 AD 267 dac - Birth 423 dac - 5.1 mab 669 dac - 1.1 yab 1060 dac - 2.2 yab 1678 dac - 3.9 yab 169 dac - 24.1 wac 107 dac - 15.3 67 dac - 9.6 wac 43 dac - 6.1 wac 27 dac 17 dac 11 dac 6.76 dac 4.27 dac 2.70 dac 1.70 dac 1.08 dac 0.68 dac - 16.3 hac 0.43 dac - 10.3 hac 0.27 dac - 6.5 hac 0.1713 dac - 4.1 hac 0.1082 dac - 2.6 hac 0.0683 dac - 1.6 hac 0.0432 dac - 62.2 mac 0.0273 dac - 39.3 mac 0.0172 dac - 24.8 mac 0.01089 dac - 15.7 mac 0.00687 dac - 9.9 mac 0.00434 dac - 6.2 mac 0.00274 dac - 3.9 mac 0.00173 dac - 2.5 mac 0.00109 dac - 1.6 mac 0.000691 dac - 59.67 sac 23.81 sac 15.04 sac 9.50 sac 6.00 sac 3.79 sac 2.39 sac 1.51 sac 0.95 sac 0.60 sac 0.38 sac 0.24 sac 0.152 sac 0.096 sac 0.061 sac 0.038 sac 0.024 sac 0.015 sac 0.0096 sac 0.0061 sac 0.0038 sac 0.0024 sac 0.0015 sac 0.00097 sac 0.00061 sac 0.00039 sac 0.00024 sac 0.00015 sac 0.000097 sac 0.000062 sac 0.000039 sac 0.000025 sac 37.69 sac 366,003,317 BP 116,502,474 BP 37,083,889 BP 11,804,169 BP 3,757,384 BP 1,196,012 BP 380,703 BP 121,181 BP 38,573 BP 12,278 BP - 10,266 BC 3,908 BP - 1,896 BC 1,244 BP - 768 AD 396 BP - 1,616 AD 126 BP - 1,886 AD 40 BP - 1,972 AD 12.77 BP - 14/03/2000 1.29 BP - 05/09/2011 48d - 03/11/2012 5d 12h 71m 7m 44s 4.48s 1,965 AD 28/04/1986 AD 06/12/1997 AD 29/06/2004 AD 07/03/2008 AD 09/04/2010 AD 14/06/2011 AD 10/02/2012 AD 03/07/2012 AD 12/09/2012 AD 24/10/2012 AD 20/11/2012 AD 03/12/2012 AD 11/12/2012 AD 21/12/2012 AD 206,495,259 BP 65,729,482 BP 20,922,344 BP 49,371,208 BP 27,854,733 BP 15,715,357 BP 6,659,789 BP 2,119,877 BP 674,778 BP 214,788 BP 68,369 BP 21,763 BP 6,927 BP - 4,915 BC 2,205 BP - 193 BC 702 BP - 1,310 AD 223 BP - 1,789 AD 71 BP - 1,941 AD 22.64 BP - 01/05/1990 4.06 BP - 30/11/2008 150 d - 23/07/2012 15 d 37h 225m 23m 139s 14s 1,949 AD 1,977 AD 04/09/2001 AD 24/12/1992 AD 06/08/2006 AD 16/05/2009 AD 10/12/2010 AD 30/10/2011 AD 29/04/2012 AD 09/08/2012 AD 07/10/2012 AD 08/11/2012 AD 28/11/2012 AD 07/12/2012 AD Transcendental/Critical Idealism/Kantianism and Neo-Kantianism: Immanuel Kant (1724-1804), African Spir (1837-1890) Marquis de Sade (1740-1814) Ancient materialism (800 - 200 BC) Stoicism (301 BC - 529 AD) Peripatetic school (334 BC - 200 AD) Middle Platonism (90BC-160AD), Neoplatonism (160-526AD) Scientific revolution and Classical mechanics : Johannes Kepler (1571-1630), Galileo Galilei (1564-1641), Nicolaus Copernicus (1573-1643), Francis Bacon (1561-1626) General theory of relativity: Albert Einstein (1879 - 1955) Old quantum theory: Max Planck (1858 - 1947), Niels Bohr (1885-1962) Causal/Nomological/Physical determinism, Logical Positivism and Scientism: Pierre-Simon Laplace 1749-1827), Henri de Saint-Simon (1760-1825), Auguste Comte (1798-1857) Renaissance Humanism: Petrarch (1304-1375), Nicholas of Kues (1401-1464), Giovanni Boccaccio (1313-1375), Cosimo de' Medici (1389-1464), Marsilio Ficino (1433–1499), Erasmus of Rotterdam (1466-1536), Ludovico Ariosto (1474-1533), Thomas More (1478-1535), Raphael Sanzio (1483-1520), Pietro Aretino (1492-1556), François Rabelais (c.1494-1553), Leonardo da Vinci(1452-1519), Michelangelo (1475-1564) Age of Enlightenment (deism, rationalism, mechanism, empiricism, materialism, reductionism): Baruch Spinoza (1632-1677), John Locke (1632-1704), Nicolas Malebranche (1638-1715), Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716), Isaac Newton (1642-1727), Ludvig Holberg (1684-1754), Montesquieu (1689-1755), Voltaire (1694-1778), Julien Offray de La Mettrie (1709 - 1751), David Hume (1711-1776), Claude Adrien Helvétius (1715-1771), Jean le Rond d'Alembert (1717-1783), Denis Diderot (1713-1784), Baron d'Holbach (1723-1789) Naturalism: Bernardino Telesio (1509-1588), Giordano Bruno (1548-1600), Tommaso Campanella (1568-1639), Pierre Gassendi (1592-1655), François de La Rochefoucauld (1613-1680), Cyrano de Bergerac (1619-1655), Blaise Pascal (1623-1662) Ancient hedonism (399BC-55BC): Cyrenaic school, Epicureanism Utilitarianism and Classical Economics: Adam Smith (1723-1790), Edmund Burke (1729-1797), Cesare Beccaria (1738-1794), Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832), Jean-Baptiste Say (1767-1832), Thomas Robert Malthus (1866-1834), David Ricardo (1772-1823), John Stuart Mill (1806-1873) Romanticism, German Idealism and Modern Teleology: Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778), Johann Gottlieb Fichte (1762-1814), Friedrich Schleiermacher (1768-1834), Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770-1831), Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1772-1834), Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling (1775-1854), Stendhal (1783-1842), Arthur Schopenhauer (1788-1860), Giacomo Leopardi (1798-1837), Ludwig Andreas von Feuerbach (1804–1872) French revolution (1789-1799)
American Revolution (1774-1791) Process philosophy: Henri Bergson (1859-1941), Alfred North Whitehead (1861-1947) Biological organicism: Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1744-1829), Rudolf Virchow (1821-1902) Holism, Evolutionism: James Hutton (1726-1797), Alexander von Humboldt (1769-1859), Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire (1772-1844), Gustav Fechner (1801-1887), Charles Lyell (1797-1875), Charles Darwin (1809-1882), Richard Owen (1804-1892), Gregor Mendel (1822-1884), Edward Burnett Tylor (1832-1917), Ernst Haeckel (1834-1919), Karl Marx (1818-1883), Friedrich Engels (1820-1895), Herbert Spencer (1820–1903) Classical Republicanism/Civic Humanism: Niccolò Machiavelli (1469–1527), Francesco Guicciardini (1482-1540) Scholasticism: Peter Abelard (1079-1142), Bernard of Clairvaux (1090-1153), Peter Lombard (1096-1164), Albertus Magnus (1193-1280), Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274), Duns Scotus (1266-1308), Bonaventure (1221-1274), William of Ockham (1288-1348) Sturm und Drang/Weimar Classicism: Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749–1832), Friedrich Schiller (1759–1805), Johann Gottfried Herder (1744–1803) Thomas Reid (1710-1796) Étienne Bonnot de Condillac (1715-1780) Physiocrats Subjective idealism/Immaterialism/Phenomenalism: George Berkeley (1685-1753) Existentialism: Martin Heidegger (1889-1976), Karl Jaspers (1883-1969), Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-1980), Albert Camus (1913-1960) Nihilism and Existentialism: Søren Kierkegaard (1813-1855), Nihilist Russian Movement (1860-1869) Modern Sociology: Emile Durkheim (1858-1917), Georg Simmel (1858-1918), Max Weber (1864-1920) Pragmatism and Naturalism: Charles Sanders Peirce (1839-1914), John Dewey (1859-1952) Objective idealism: Josiah Royce (1855-1916), Benedetto Croce (1866-1952), George Edward Moore (1873-1958), Giovanni Gentile (1875-1944) Anatole France (1844-1924) Spiritism and Vitalism: Emanuel Swedenborg (1788-1872), Franz Mesmer (1734-1815), Fox sisters (1838-1893), Antoine Lavoisier (1743-1894), Allan Kardec (1804-1869) Renaissance Occultism: Giovanni Pico della Mirandola (1463-1494), Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa (1486–1535) Society of Jesus: Ignatius of Loyola (1491-1556), Francis Xavier (1506-1552), Peter Faber (1506-1546) Rosicrucianism: Christian Rosenkreuz (17th ce.), Robert Fludd (1574-1637) Freemasonry: William Schaw (1550-1602) Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn: Samuel Liddell MacGregor Mathers (1854-1918), Aleister Crowley (1875-1947) Enlightenment theosophy (1650-1775) Theosophical Society and Anthroposophy: Helena Blavatsky (1831–1891), Rudolf Steiner (1861–1925) Hermeticism and Gnosticism Modern Psychology: Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920), William James (1842-1910), Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850-1909), Franz Brentano (1838-1917), Gustave Le Bon (1841-1931), Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936), Sigmund Freud (1856-1939), Carl Jung (1875-1961)
Parapsychology: Joseph Banks Rhine (1895-1980) Anarchism, Socialism, Libertarianism and Individualism: William Godwin (1756-1836), Robert Owen (1771-1858), Charles Fourier (1772-1837), Josiah Warren (1798-1874), Max Stirner (1806-1856), Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (1809-1865), Henry David Thoreau (1817-1862), Michail Bakunin (1814-1876) Radicalism, republicanism, liberalism, whiggery: Richard Price (1723-1791), Joseph Priestley (1733-1804), Thomas Paine (1737-1809) Otto von Bismarck (1815-1898) Realpolitik and Mercantilism/Origin of Capitalism: Cardinal Richelieu (1585-1642), Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658) First Turkish or Türk Empire (552-581)
Second Turkish or Türk empire (683-734) Deconstructionism and Post-Structuralism: Claude Lévi-Strauss (1908-2009), Jacques Lacan (1901-1981), Roland Barthes (1915-1980), Michel Foucault (1926-1984), Jacques Derrida (1930-2004) Semiotics and Structural Linguistics: Ferdinand de Saussure, (1857–1913), Jakob von Uexküll (1864-1944), Prague school (1928-1939) Logicism/Logical Empiricism: Gottlob Frege (1848-1925), Josiah Royce (1855-1916), Edmund Husserl (1859-1938), Bertrand Russell (1872-1970), George Edward Moore (1873-1958), Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889-1951), Vienna Circle (1907-1929) Baroque style (1590-1725) Algebraic Logic: Johann Heinrich Lambert (1728-1777), George Peacock (1791-1858), John Herschel (1792-1871), Charles Babbage (1791-1871), George Boole (1815-1864), Ada Lovelace (1815-1852), Augustus De Morgan (1806-1871) Alchemy: Ramon Llull (1232-1315), Paracelsus (1493-1541) Phrenology: Franz Joseph Gall (1758-1828) Term/Traditional/Aristotelian Logic Early Islamic Philosophy: Al-Kindi (801-873), Al-Farabi (872-950), Avicenna (980-1037) Order of Saint Benedict (from 530), Byzantine Iconoclasm (726-842), Orthodox consensus with the first seven ecumenical councils (787), Cluniac Reforms (from 910), East–West Schism (from 1053), Cistercians (1098), Investiture Controversy (1103-1107) Cathedral schools (from 527), Universities (from 1088) Romanesque architecture (6th-12th ce.) Gothic architecture (12th-16th ce.) Mendicant Orders (from 1209): Franciscans, Carmelites, Dominicans, Servite Order and Augustinians Medieval Inquisition (12th-16th ce.), Beguines and Beghards (13th-16th ce.), Joan of Arc (1412-1431), Conciliarism (15th ce.), Lollardy (1381-16th ce.), Hussites (14th ce.), Moravian Church (15th ce.), Thomas Müntzer (1489-1525) Spanish Inquisition, Roman Inquisition, Portuguese Inquisition (16th-18th ce.)
Protestant Reformation (from 16th ce.): Calvinist/Presbyterian, Puritan/Methodist, Lutheran/Neo-Lutheran, Hutterite/Baptist/Adventist, Anglican/Quackers/Congregational/Episcopal Classical Populism (163BC - 14AD) Pre-Scholasticism (from 787): Carolingian Renaissance (8th-9th ce.), Alcuin of York (735-804), Johannes Scotus Eriugena (815-877), (Anselm of Canterbury (1033-1109), Roscellinus (1050-1125) Liberalism: Karl Popper (1902-1994) Pragmatism: Willard Van Orman Quine (1908-2000) Empiricism: Gilles Deleuze (1925-1995) Tibetan Buddhism: Nyingma (from 760) Tibetan Buddhism: Rimé movement (from 19th ce.) Immanentism: Pope Pius X (1835-1914) Nouvelle Théologie: Pierre Teilhard de Chardin (1881-1955), Karl Rahner (1904-1984), Second Vatican Council (1962-1965) Great Awakening/Christian Revival: Seventh-day Adventists, Latter Day Saint movement, Pentecostals, Restoration Movement Jehovah's Witnesses (from 1881) Vatican City/Lateran Treaty (from 1929), Opus Dei (from 1928) Neo-Scholasticism (19th ce.) Supreme Leader of Iran: Ruhollah Khomeini (1902-1989)
Supreme Leader of North Korea: Kim Il-sung (1912-1994)
Máximo Líder of Cuba: Fidel Castro (1926-)
Conducător of Romania: Nicolae Ceaușescu (1918-1989)
Brother Leader and Guide of the Revolution of Lybia: Muammar Gaddafi (1942-2011) Dictators: Führer of Germany-Adolf Hitler (1889-1945), Duce of Italy-Benito Mussolini (1883-1945), Vozhd of the Soviet Union-Joseph Stalin (1878-1953), Caudillo of Spain-Francisco Franco (1892-1975) Radical behaviorism: Burrhus Frederic Skinner (1904-1990) Voluntarism, Emergentism, Complexity theory, Self-organizing systems, Cybernetics and Neural Network: Charles Scott Sherrington (1857-1952), Norbert Wiener (1894-1964), Warren Sturgis McCulloch (1898-1969), Ludwig von Bertalanffy (1901-1972), Talcott Parsons (1902-1979), Donald O. Hebb (1904-1985), John von Neumann (1903-1957), Alan Turing (1912-1954) Cultural and social anthropology/Cultural relativism: Andrew Lang (1844-1912), James George Frazer (1854-1941), Franz Boas (1858-1942), Bronisław Malinowski (1884-1942) Neoclassical Economics: Alfred Marshall (1842-1924), John Maynard Keynes (1883-1946) Methodological individualism/Austrian School: Friedrich von Wieser (1851-1926), Ludwig von Mises (1881-1973), Friedrich Hayek (1899-1992) Biological and Genetic Determinism, Neo-Darwinism: Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913), Thomas Henry Huxley (1825-1895), August Weismann (1834-1914), William Bateson (1861-1926), Thomas Hunt Morgan (1866-1945), Hans Driesch (1867-1941) Neoclassical (economic) synthesis: Paul Anthony Samuelson (1915-2009)
Modern evolutionary synthesis: Julian Huxley (1887-1975), Ronald Fisher (1890-1962), J. B. S. Haldane (1892-1964), George Gaylord Simpson (1902-1984), Ernst Mayr (1904-1995) Incompleteness theorems: Kurt Gödel (1906-1978) Quantum mechanics: Werner Heisenberg (1901-1976), Erwin Schrödinger (1887-1961), Wolfgang Pauli (1900-1958) Agnosticism and Hedonism: Omar Khayyám (1048-1131) Supramoralism: Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900), Nikolai Fyodorovich Fyodorov (1829-1903) Futurism: Filippo Tommaso Marinetti (1876-1944) Transhumanism: FM-2030 (1930-2000) Animism: Georg Ernst Stahl (1659-1734) Constructivist (learning theory): Maria Montessori (1840-1952), Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934), Jean Piaget (1896-1980) Agnosticism: Robert G. Ingersoll (1833-1899) Skepticism and Atheism: Johannes Scotus Eriugena (815-877), Al-Ghazali (1058-1111), Omar Khayyám (1048-1131) Skepticism: Michel de Montaigne (1533-1592) Hugo Grotius (1583-1645), Thomas Hobbes (1588 - 1679), René Descartes (1596 - 1650), Giambattista Vico (1668-1744) Ibn Tufail (1105-1185), Averroes (1126-1198), Maimonides (1135-1204) Nine Crusades (1095-1272), Knights Templar (1119-1312), Waldensians (from 1177), Catharism/Albigensians (10th-14th ce.), Peter of Bruis (1131) Platonic Academy (387-90BC) Generative linguistics: Noam Chomsky (1928-) Complex systems, chaos in deterministic systems, dynamical systems, nonlinearity, neural networks, self-organizing systems, nonequilibrium thermodynamics, dissipative structures : Friedrich Hayek (1899-1992), Gregory Bateson (1904-1980), Ilya Prigogine (1917-2003) Thermodynamics and Electromagnetism: Otto von Guericke (1602-1686), Robert Boyle (1627-1691), Daniel Bernoulli (1700-1782), André-Marie Ampère (1775-1836), Hans Christian Ørsted (1777-1851), Michael Faraday (1791-1867), Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot (1796-1892), Rudolf Clausius (1822-1888), James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879) Sociobiology and Gene-Centrism: E. O. Wilson (1929-), W. D. Hamilton (1936-2000) Morphogenetic fields: Paul Alfred Weiss (1898-1989), Conrad Hal Waddington (1905-1975), René Thom (1923-2002), Rupert Sheldrake (1942-)
Evolutionary developmental biology/Evo-Devo: Jacques Monod (1910-1976), François Jacob (1920-), Richard Lewontin (1929-), Stephen Jay Gould (1941-2002)
Arthur Koestler (1905-1983) Sociobiology: Edward Osborne Wilson (1929-)
New Atheism: Richard Dawkins (1941-), Daniel Dennett (1942-) 1,149,833,333 BP 648,723,989 BP 863,669,371 BP 487,273,468 BP 274,914,731 BP 155,104,093 BP 87,508,151 BP 996,531,796 BP Choanozoa/Choanomonada: Corallochytrium, Choanoflagellate
Filozoa (Filasterea)
Holozoa (Mesomycetozoea) 1,070,441,721 BP 1,109,427,588 BP Opisthokonta: Apusozoa?, Holomycota (Fungi, Chytrids, Microsporidia, Nucleariidae/Cristidiscoidea) Unikonta/Sarcomastigota: Amoebozoa (Lobosea/ameba tipica, Pelobionta, Myxomycota/slime molds, Mycetozoa, Archamoebae) Bikonta/Biciliata: Rhizaria (Cercozoa, Radiozoa, Foraminifera), Excavata/Eozoa (Euglenozoa, Percolozoa, Loukozoa, Metamonada), Apusozoa?, Halvaria (Heterokonta/Stramenopiles, Alveolata), Hacrobia/Eukaryomonadae, Plantae/Archaeplastida (Viridiplantae/Chlorophyta, Rhodophyta, Glaucocystophyceae)

clade/subphylum Epitheliozoa > class Homoscleromorpha (basal lamina, basal membrane with collagen IV, focal adhesions, true sealed epithelium, larval outer cell layer with spot-adherens cell junctions, extracellular digestion, archenteron, cinctoblastula larva)
clade/subphylum Cellularia/Pinacophora: class Demospongiae (skin-like pinacoderm consisting of discrete cells with few if any junctions between them, internal digestion), class Calcarea (partially sealed epithelia, primitive desmosome-like junctions, larval ciliated cell with striated root, intracellular digestion)
Kingdom Metazoa (Multicellular chemoorganoheterotrophic organism that develops from embryos and possesses motility at some point in its life cycle, have Mendelian genetics and are diploids with gametic meiosis) > clade/subkingdom Parazoa > clade/phylum Porifera > clade/subphylum Symplasma > class Hexactinellida/glass sponges (lecithotrophic larvae with effective-stroke cilia and locomotory polarity, lacks contractile cells, syncytia, plugged junctions that resemble gap-junctions, hermaphroditism, intracellular digestion)
clade/superclass Osteichthyes/bony fish > class Actinopterygii (pesci ossei), fossil class Sarcopterygii (celacanto e dipnoi)
clade Teleostomi > fossil class Acanthodii
infraphylum Gnathostomata (jaws, third horizontal semicircular canals, at least two sets of paired fins, notochord transient, blood coagulation system) > fossil class Placodermii, class Chondrichthyes (pesci cartilaginei)
Subphylum Vertebrata > Basal fossil vertebrates (Conodonta, Pteraspidomorphi/Osteostracans, Thelodonti, Anaspida, Osteostraci/Ostracoderm)(paired lateral eyes, pineal eye, single nostril, respiratory tube, branchial muscles, gill pores, skull/head skeleton, tripartite brain, cartilage, segmented vertebral column, splanchnocranium, two vertical semicircular canals, extrinsic eye muscles, mineralized tissue/calcium phosphate/hydroxylapatite, teeth of dentine and enamel, head shields of dermal bone, developmental interaction of epidermis and dermis, scales, individualized spleen and pancreas??) > superclass Cyclostomata: families Myxinidae (myxine) and Petromyzontidae/Hyperoartia (lamprey)
superclass Agnatha > clade Craniata (fossil species: Haikouella, Haikouichthys, Myllokunmingia) (fully expressed and migratory neural crest, ectodermal placodes develop into cranial sensory structures: optic placode and otic placode, and later olfactory placode and adenohypophysis, adaptive immunity)
clade Olfactores > subphylum Tunicata/Urochordata (classes Ascidiacea, Thaliacea, Appendicularia/Larvacea) (precursors of the neural crest, the ectodermal placodes and the pituitary, 1 eye-spot and 1 otolith)
phylum Chordata > class Cephalochordata (amphioxus), fossil species (Pikaia, Yunnanozoon) (patterning inversion, endostyle/thyroid, dorsal, hollow dorsal nerve cord/tube extends from head to tail, cephalization, notochord, segmented trunk, somites, myomeres, post-anal segmented tail, metamerism enables swimming, digestive caecum, circulatory system with dorsal and ventral vessels)
superphylum Deuterostomia (dorsoventral patterning like protostomes, pharyngeal slits, complement proteins) > clade Ambulacraria: phyla Xenoturbellida, Hemichordata (classes Pterobranchia, Enteropneusta), Echinodermata (classes Crinoidea, Eleutherozoa)
infrakingdom Bilateria (this term is not correct because bilaterality developed earlier; the phylogenesis of bilaterians and protostomes is highly disputed) > clade Mesozoa (phyla Rhombozoa, Orthonectida, Monoblastozoa), clade Acoelomorpha (classes Acoela, Nemertodermatida), phylum Chaetognatha, clade Nemathelminthes/Aschelminthes (phyla Gastrotricha, Nematoda, Nematomorpha, Priapulida, Kinorhyncha, Loricifera), clade Gnathifera (phyla Entoprocta, Rotifera, Gnathostomulida, Cycliophora, Acanthocaphala, Micrognathozoa), phylum Bryozoa/Ectoprocta, phylum Platyhelminthes (classes Cestoda, Trematoda, Monogenea, Turbellaria), phylum Nemertea, phylum Sipuncula, phylum Mollusca, phylum Annelida, phylum Arthropoda (subphyla Onychophora, Tardigrada, Pentastomida, Chelicerata, Mandibulata), clade Lophophorata (phyla Brachiopoda, Phoronida)
clade/phylum Cnidaria (bilateral symmetry, Hox clusters, organs, organized planula nervous system, nematocysts, no coelom, transcription factors and developmental signaling pathways es.Notch, septate junctions): Anthozoa, Hydrozoa, Scyphozoa, Cubozoa, Staurozoa, Myxozoa, Polypodiozoa
clade Coelenterata > phylum Ctenophora (biradial symmetry, multiciliate cells, ctenes, belt-adherens junctions, ctenophore-specific tight junctions, gap junctions): Tentaculata, Nuda
subkingdom Eumetazoa/Gastraeozoa > phylum Placozoa: Trichoplax (Parahox genes, neotenic larva, no choanocytes, dissogony, larva a gastrula with primary apical-blastoporal axis, upper protective and locomotory ectoderm, lower digestive endoderm) Fossil mammaliaform Therapsids (Eucynodontia, Probainognathia, Chiniquodontoidea, Protostrodontia) (complete bony palate, cheek teeth crowned, teeth replaced only once, molars double-rooted, three ear bones, lumbar region rib-free, double occipital condyle, six-layer cerebral cortex, most early mammals were small and shrew-like animals that fed on insects)
Fossil non-mammaliaform Therapsids (Eutherapsida, Neotherapsida, Theriodontia, Eutheriodontia, basal Cynodontia, Epicynodondia) - (incisor-canine-cheek teeth sequence, legs under body, body temperature regulation, the jaws of cynodonts resemble modern mammal jaws)
Fossil basal Synapsids (Pelycosauria/Eupelycosauria, Sphenacodontia)
clade Amniota > clade Reptilia (fossil Sauropsids and Anapsids, order Testudines/Chelonii) > clade Romeriida (basal Diapsids, superorder Lepidosauria) > clade Archosauria (pterosaurs, dinosaurs, order Crocodylia)> class Aves
Superclass Tetrapoda (basal fossil Tetrapods) > class Amphibia (fossil subclasses Labyrinthodontia, Lepospondyli) > subclass Lissamphibia (amphibians) clade Boreosphenida > supercohort Theria > subclass Metatheria > order Marsupialia (opossum, canguro, koala...)
class Mammalia > basal fossil Mammals (Multituberculata, Triconodonte, Symmetrodonta, Australosphenids, Prototheria, Theriiformes, Allotheria, Gondwanatheria, Multitubercolata, Holotheria, Trechnotheria, Cladotheria, Dryolestida) > clade Australosphenida > order Monotremata (l’ornitorinco e l’echidna) mirorder Primatomorpha - (grasping hands, collar bone, closed eye-socket, nails, eyes in front, muzzle reduction, 2.1.2.3 dental formula, no tail) > order Dermoptera (colugos), order Plesiadapimorphes (extinct)
superorder Euarchontoglires: orders Rodentia (scoiattolo, ratto, topo, castoro, porcospino, gopher), Lagomorpha (coniglio, lepre, pika), Scandentia (treeshrew)
subclass Eutheria > cohort Placentalia
Fossil orders (Creodonta, Condylartha, Cimolesta, Xenungulata, Taeniodonta, Tillodontia, Dinocerata, Pantodonta, Astropotheria, Notoungulata, Liptoterna, Pyrotheria, Embrithopoda, Desmostyla)
Extant orders: Xenarthra (formichiere, bradipo, armadillo), Insectivora/Erinaceomorpha (riccio, toporagno, talpa), Carnivora (canidi, ursidi, pinnipedi, mustelidi, procione, moffetta, felidi, iena, zibetto/genetta, mangusta), Chiroptera (pipistrello), Cetacea (balena, delfino, focena), Tubulidentata (oritteropo), Perissodactyla (equidi, rinoceronte, tapiro), Artiodactyla (bovidi, cervidi, suidi, camelidi, antilope d'America, giraffa, ippopotamo, tragulo, mosco, pecari), Proboscidea (elefante), Sirenia (dugongo, lamantino), Hyracoidea (procavia), Pholidota (pangolino), Macroscelidea (toporagno elefante) infraorder Simiiformes/simians/anthropoids > parvorder Platyrrhini/New World monkeys (Our trichromatic color vision had its genetic origins in this period, lack of a tail, ape-like elbows, and a slightly larger brain relative to body size)
order Primates/Prosimians (lemuriformes, lorisiformes, tarsiiformes) superfamily Hominoidea/lesser apes/hominoids > Hylobatidae (gibbons, siamang, hoolock)
parvorder Catarrhini/Old World monkeys family Hominidae/hominids/great apes > genus Pongo (orangutan) (a wide, flat rib cage, a stiff lower spine, flexible wrists, and shoulder blades that lie along its back) tribe Hominini/hominins (genera Sahelanthropus, Orrorin, Ardipithecus)
subfamily Homininae/hominines > genera Gorilla (gorilla di montagna e di pianura) and Pan (scimpanzé, bonobo) genus Homo: H. gautengensis, H. habilis, H. ergaster, H. rudolfensis, H. erectus (subspecies erectus, georgicus, lantianensis, nankinensis, palaeojavanicus, pekinensis, soloensis, tautavelensis, yuanmouensis), inclusion in the genus Homo is controversial, fauna villafranchiana (Elephas, Equus, Bos, Camelus), perdita del gene MYH16 (miosina sarcomerica dei muscoli masticatori), inattivazione del gene codificante l’enzima CMP-N-CMAH, aplotipo sanguigno umano ancestrale ChimpA, resource sharing, food and tool collecting and bringing to favored resting and eating spots, stone handaxes, controversial paleopathological evidence (gum disease, septicemia, foot arthrosis, hypervitaminosis A)
subtribe Hominina/hominans (genera Australopithecus, Kenyanthropus, Paranthropus), bipedalismo, hammerstones, stone flakes, animal butchering, scavenging of the kills of predators, rapid brain size increase (both allometric and non-allometric), Reduction of primary visual striate cortex (area 17) and relative increase in posterior parietal cortex Archaic humans (H. heidelbergensis, H. helmei, H. rhodesiensis, Homo neanderthalensis, Denisovans, H. floresiensis, Red Deer Cave dwellers), Reorganization of frontal lobe (Third inferior frontal convolution, Broca’s area, widening prefrontal), cerebral asymmetries (left occipital, right-frontal petalias), refinements in cortical organization
Very archaic humans (H. antecessor/mauritanicus, H. cepranensis) Evolution of dark skin, which is linked to the loss of body hair in human ancestors, is complete by 1.2 Ma. Hominans already inhabited northern latitudes over the 45th parallel (earliest evidence of a settlement in cold climate at Happisburgh-England around 900 kya, possibly by H. Antecessor, without the use of fire), creation of stone tools species Homo Sapiens (”Anatomically modern humans”), fossil remains: Omo Kibish (Ethiopia), Herto Bouri (Ethiopia, also called Homo sapiens idaldu), Jebel Irhoud (Morocco), more robust faces and postcranial skeletons, steep encrease in cranial capacity, humans reach the maximum cranial capacity (1450 cm³) and the maximum stoutness/strenght subspecies Homo sapiens sapiens: Qafzeh and Es Skhul (Israel), Jebel Faya (Emirates), Klasies River (South Africa), Semliki River (DR Congo), Jwalapuram (India), Callao Cave (Philippines), Pedra Furada (Brazil), Lake Mungo (Australia), Blombos Cave (South Africa), Lake Nojiri (Japan), Grotta del Cavallo (Italy), Kents Cavern (United Kingdom), Geißenklösterle (Germany), Jordan River Levee (Tasmania), Tianyuan Cave (China), Niah Cave (Malaysia)
Most Recent Common Ancestor (MRCA): Mitochondrial haplogroups (Mitochondrial Eve, Y-chromosome Adam)
Initial spread in North and Sub-Saharan Africa, language families (Khoisan and Nilo-Saharian)
Migration out of Africa followed two routes recurrently intermingling:
Southern Route (through coastal areas around the Indian Ocean) reaches Southern India, but the Toba Supereruption causes a severe bottleneck. Migration resumes from Indochina at 70 kya, reaches Philippines at 67 kya, Taiwan at 50 kya, Japan at 47 kya, Australia at 48 kya, Tasmania at 41 kya, Melanesia at 30 kya), language families (Australian Aborigine, Indo-Pacific, Mon-Khmer/Austro-Asiatic, Austronesian, Ainu). Migration resumes from Pakistan at 65 kya, reaches Europe at 45 kya), language families (Burushaski, Pontic/North-West Caucasian, Vasconic/Iberian/Nuragic, Hattic, Hurro-Urartian, Dagestanian/North-East Caucasian).
Northern Route (through the steppes of Central Asia) reaches America at 50 kya, language families (Salish, Uto-Aztecan, Sioux, Iroquois, Algonquian) and (Mayan, South-American group, Andean-Penutian) "Behaviorally modern humans", archeological sites: Hofmeyr Skull (South Africa), Peştera cu Oase (Romania), Red Lady of Paviland (United Kingdom), Cro-Magnon (France), Fa Hien Cave (Sri Lanka), Predmost 3 (Czech Republic), Mladeč (Czech Republic), Bluefish Caves (Canada), Minatogawa 1 (Japan), Yamashita-Cho Man (Japan), Chauvet Cave (France), Ksar Akil (Lebanon), Abrigo do Lagar Velho (Portugal), Schelklingen (Germany), Enkapune ya Muto (Kenya), Zar Cave (Azerbaijan), Gough's Cave (United Kingdom), Meadowcroft Rockshelter (USA), Monte Verde (Chile), Pikimachay (Peru), Aetokremnos (Cyprus), El Abra (Colombia), they have interbred with at least two other human subspecies (neanderthals and denisovans) before their extinction, cranial capacity decreases (1350 cm³) but is still higher than modern humans; they are taller and more muscular than modern humans. With the extinction of neanderthals and Homo floresiensis, the behaviorally modern humans remain the only hominids on Earth.
Migrations resume from Asia, returning to northern Africa at 25 kya, reaching Siberia at 25 kya and America at 12 kya), language families (Niger-Congo, Yeniseiean, Sino-Tibetan, Na-Dene, Miao-Yao, Thai-Kadai) Nostratic language supergroup:
Isolate language families (Kartvelian/South Caucasian, Sumerian, Elamite, Dravidian/Harappan)
Semitic language family: South (Ethiopian, South Arabic), Central (Phoenician, Hebrew, Aramaic, Arabic), Akkadian (Babylonian, Assyrian)
Hamitic language family: Egyptian/Coptic, Berber, Chadic, Omotic, Cushitic
Japhethic cultures - first Bronze cultures (Kura-Araxes culture, Maykop culture), Steppe cultures (Yamna culture, Catacomb culture, Poltavka culture, Sintashta culture)
Uralo-Siberian group: Eskimo/Aleut, Chukchi-Kamchatkan, Yukaghir, Sami, Samoyedic, Finno-Ugric
Gilyak-Altaic group: Siberian, Mongolic, Koreanic, Japonic, Turkic, Tungusic, Nivkh
Tyrrhenian/Tyrsenian/Aegean/Pelasgian group: Rhaetic, Lemnian, Etruscan, Camunic, Minoan, Eteocypriot, Philistine
Anatolian Indo-European group (Hittite, Luwian, Lycian, Lydian)
South-East Indo-European group: Aryan (Iranian, Indo-Aryan), Helleno-Phrygian (Greek, Phrygian)
North-West Indo-European group: Agni/Kuchi (Tocharian), Balto-Balkanic (Baltic, Slavic, Dacian, Albanian, Thracian, Armenian, Illyrian, Messapian), Italo-Celtic (Celtic, Asturian, Ligurian, Umbrian, Sabellic, Faliscan, Latin/Romance, Venetic, Dalmatian/Pannonian, Siculian), Germanic Urban cultures in Mesopotamia and Anatolia flourished, developing the wheel.
Chalcolithic: metallurgy and mines of copper. Copper and gold ornaments become hierarchical symbols. Burials with spectacural objects.
World population begins to grow steeply.
Invention of sails. Mastering of navigation between the Mediterranean Sea, the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel (newly formed) and the North Sea.
European megafauna is extinct: hunter-gathering restricted to wild berries, fish and shellfish.
Earliest town in Europe: Solnitsata (Bulgaria). The inhabitants of the town boiled brine from salt springs in kilns, then baked it into bricks and used it for trading. The high value of salt may explain why ancient caches of gold jewellery and ritual objects have been unearthed in the region.
Agriculture, animal husbandry and ceramics reach the whole Old World from Ancient Near East, and appear independently in the New World. Animal husbandry spread throughout Eurasia, reaching China. Rice is domesticated in Asia. Irrigation in Mesopotamia. Maize is cultivated in Mexico. Beans and gourds are cultivated in Ancient Japan. Plough pulled by animals is introduced in East Europe. Domestication of horses in the eurasiatic steppe. Cultuvation of calabash in Africa and Central America. Sorgho in Sudan. Earliest evidence of cheese-making in Poland. Wine is created for the first time in Persia. Domestication of camelids in Peru.
Sepulchral megaliths in Europe. Temples founded in South Mesopotamia
Proto-writing, such as ideographic Vinča symbols (Tartaria tablets)
Metallurgy during the Copper Age in Europe
Neolithic circular enclosures in Central Europe. The structures are mostly interpreted as having served a cultic purpose. Most of them are aligned and seem to have served the function of a calendar (Kalenderbau). The observational determination of the time of solstice would not have served a practical (agricultural) purpose, but could have been used to maintain a lunisolar calendar.
The Neolithic Subpluvial (Holocene Wet Phase, "Wet Sahara" or "Green Sahara", from about 7000 to 5000 BC) ends and desertification begins. Marine transgressions of about 3mt: Old Peron (4900-4100 BC), Younger Peron (4000-3400 BC). Hellenistic period (323BC-31BC), Hipparchus (190BC-120BC) discovers precession of Earth's equinoxes and compiles first trigonometric tables. Hellenistic art. Rotary mill invented by the ancient Greeks. Tolemaic Dinasty in Egypt. Euclid (365BC-275BC), Erasistratus (304BC-250BC), Archimedes of Syracuse (287BC-212BC). Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.
The Roman Republic (509BC-27BC) conquers the Mediterranean. Defeat of Carthage. Arrogance on the part of the Romans, which manifested itself in provincial corruption, and a shameless lust for wealth and status among the privileged classes. Reforming of the Roman Army from a citizen army to a voluntary professional force, allowing the recruitment of landless citizens. The Roman concrete (pozzolana) first used. Cicero (106BC-43BC)
End of Warring State period. China reaches a high point under the Han Dynasty. The Chinese first produce Paper. Silk Road between Europe and Asia. Liu An invented tofu. Construction of the Great Wall of China. Compass is invented in China. Mencius (372BC-289BC, confucian)
Diffusion of Buddhism in India, in Nepal and Sri Lanka.
Formative Period of Mesoamerican civilization: saw the rise of large-scale ceremonial architecture, writing, cities, and states, the dominance of corn, the building of pyramids, human sacrifice, jaguar-worship, the complex calendar, and many of the gods. During this period, the Olmec, the Zapotec, the Teotihuacan, the Maya, the Nazca in Peru and the Tiwanaku in Bolivia.
Commercialization of ivory from East-Africa.
Unification of Gaul by the Celts. Typical settlements (Oppida). Beginning of celtic currency. Gallic invasion of the Balkans (celtic mercenaries are attracted from the Hellenistic wars)
The Germanics migrate from Scandinavia to central Europe.
Apocalyptic literature is a genre of prophetical writing that developed in post-Exilic Jewish culture of Palestine and was popular among millennialist early Christians: Book of Enoch, Book of Daniel, Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs, Dead Sea Scrolls.
Maurya Empire (322BC-185BC) in India. Hinduism: the Mauryan period saw an early flowering of classical Sanskrit Sutra and Shastra literature and the scholarly exposition of the "circum-Vedic" fields of the Vedanga. However, during this time Buddhism was patronized by Ashoka, who ruled large parts of India, and Buddhism was also the mainstream religion until the Gupta empire period.
Xiongnu State in Mongolia.
The Yayoi period is an Iron Age era in the history of Japan traditionally dated 300 BC to AD 300
End of history of Babylon.
Beginning of international commerce and appearance of a capitalistic bourgeoisie (bankers, general farmers, ship-owners, traders). Increase of transports: better navigation techniques, merchant ports, streets, channels. The currency becomes widespread. Banks make currency exchange and loans with interests. Slave trafic is considerable. Products from Subsaharan Africa, Arabia and South-East Asia. Food coming from Maghreb. Serfdom begins to disappear, thanks to the economic progress.
Political concentration, in reaction to the fragmentation of fees and municipalities. The authority of the emperor and of the Pope are crumbling. The period of Signorias and Principalities begins to solve the problem of anarchy and internal fights in the municipalities. The Signores promote civil and economic progress, and use foreign mercenary militias (former crusaders) to face internal enemies.
The maritime republics were a number of city-states which flourished in Italy and Dalmatia. These states competed with each other both militarily and commercially.
National Monarchies assert their power.
First Bourse at Bruges (Flanders)
Manuscript culture develops out of this time period in cities in Europe, which denotes a shift from monasteries to cities for books.
Wooden movable type printing invented by the Chinese governmental minister Wang Zhen in 1298.
Hundred Years' War: although primarily a dynastic conflict, the war gave impetus to ideas of French and English nationalism. Militarily, it saw the introduction of weapons and tactics that supplanted the feudal armies dominated by heavy cavalry. The first standing armies in Western Europe since the time of the Western Roman Empire were introduced for the war, thus changing the role of the peasantry. Joan of Arc (1412-1431).
In Europe, after the demographic explosion of the previous century the population was drastically reduced by civil wars, deadly epidemics, famines and bandit free companies of mercenaries.
Ottoman Empire (1299-1923)a
The Kamakura period in Japan (1185–1333) marks the governance by the Kamakura Shogunate, established by the first shogun Minamoto no Yoritomo. The period is known for the emergence of the samurai, the warrior caste, and for the establishment of feudalism in Japan. Zen Buddhism.
Mongol Empire (1206-1368), Genghis Khan (1162-1227), Pax Mongolica
Tenochtitlan: founded in 1325, it became the capital of the expanding Mexica/Aztec Empire in the 15th century. At its peak, it was the largest city in the Pre-Columbian New World.
The end of Mongol Yuan Dynasty in China and the beginning of the Ming Dynasty (1368)
Marco Polo (1254-1324) was a Venetian merchant traveler whose travels are recorded in Livres des merveilles du monde, a book which did much to introduce Europeans to Central Asia and China. His pioneering journey inspired Christopher Columbus and others. He also had an influence on European cartography, leading to the introduction of the Fra Mauro map.
Albertus Magnus (1206-1280) was a German Dominican friar and a bishop who achieved fame for his comprehensive knowledge of and advocacy for the peaceful coexistence of science and religion.
Introduction of Arab and Greek knowledge (Aristotle, Euclid, Ptolemy) in the Universities (R.Bacon, A.Magnus), integrating their representation of the world as spherical.
Roger Bacon (1214–1294) was an English philosopher and Franciscan friar who placed considerable emphasis on the study of nature through empirical methods. He is sometimes credited, mainly starting in the 19th century, as one of the earliest European advocates of the modern scientific method inspired by the works of Aristotle and later Arabic works, such as the works of Muslim scientist Alhazen. However, more recent reevaluations emphasize that he was essentially a medieval thinker, with much of his "experimental" knowledge obtained from books, in the scholastic tradition
John Duns Scotus (1266-1308) is generally reckoned to be one of the three most important philosopher-theologians of the High Middle Ages. The doctrines for which he is best known are the "univocity of being," that existence is the most abstract concept we have, applicable to everything that exists; the formal distinction, a way of distinguishing between different aspects of the same thing; and the idea of haecceity, the property supposed to be in each individual thing that makes it an individual. Scotus also developed a complex argument for the existence of God, and argued for the Immaculate conception of Mary.
Saint Bonaventure (1221-1274) was an Italian medieval scholastic theologian and philosopher. The seventh Minister General of the Order of Friars.
Ramon Llull (1232-1315) was a Majorcan writer and philosopher, logician and a Franciscan tertiary. He wrote the first major work of Catalan literature. Recently-surfaced manuscripts show him to have anticipated by several centuries prominent work on elections theory. He is sometimes considered a pioneer of computation theory, especially given his influence on Gottfried Leibniz. Llull is well known also as a glossator of Roman Law.
St. Francis of Assisi (1182-1226) was an Italian Catholic friar and preacher. He founded the men's Order of Friars Minor, the women’s Order of St. Clare, and the Third Order of Saint Francis for men and women not able to live the lives of itinerant preachers followed by the early members of the Order of Friars Minor or the monastic lives of the Poor Clares.
Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274) was an Italian Dominican priest, philosopher and theologian in the tradition of scholasticism. He was the foremost classical proponent of natural theology, and the father of Thomism. Much of modern philosophy was conceived in development or refutation of his ideas, particularly in the areas of ethics, natural law, metaphysics, and political theory.
The troubadour school or tradition began in the late 11th century in Occitania. The texts of troubadour songs deal mainly with themes of chivalry and courtly love. Most were metaphysical, intellectual, and formulaic. Many were humorous or vulgar satires.
The corruption of the Church increases: opposition from the Cathares, the Waldensians and the Pauperist
The Lollardy movement rises in England. The Great Schism of the West begins in 1378, eventually leading to 3 simultaneous popes. The story of Barlaam and Josaphat, a Christianized and later version of the story of Siddhartha Gautama.
Jan Hus (1369-1415) was a Czech priest and philosopher. After John Wycliffe, the theorist of ecclesiastical Reformation, Hus is considered the first Church reformer. Between 1420 and 1431, the Hussite forces defeated five consecutive papal crusades against followers of Hus.
Saint Catherine of Siena (1347-1380) was a tertiary of the Dominican Order, a mystic and a Scholastic philosopher and theologian. She is one of the two patron saints of Italy, together with St. Francis of Assisi.
The Revolt of the Ciompi was a popular revolt in Florence 1378 by wool carders. The ciompi were a class of labourers in the textile industry who were not represented by any guild. They were among the most radical of the lower-class groups, vegetable sellers and crockery vendors and the like, and resented the controlling power that was centred in the Arte della Lana, the textile-manufacturing establishment which guided the economic engine of Florence's prosperity, and was supported by the other major Guilds of Florence, the Arti maggiori.
The Peasants' Revolt (Wat Tyler's Rebellion, or the Great Rising) of 1381: the revolt later came to be seen as a mark of the beginning of the end of serfdom in medieval England, although the revolt itself was a failure. It increased awareness in the upper classes of the need for the reform of feudalism in England and the appalling misery felt by the lower classes as a result of their enforced near-slavery.
Islam spread with Muslim trade networks that extended into Sub-Saharan Africa, Central Asia and the Malay archipelago.
Ibn Khaldūn (1332-1406) was a Tunisian Muslim historiographer and historian who is often viewed as one of the fathers of modern historiography, sociology and economics.
Dante Alighieri (1265-1321), Francesco Petrarca (1304-1374), Giovanni Boccaccio (1313-1375): the first Humanists, created the Italian language.
Gothic art gradually gives way to the Renaissance: Giotto (1266-1337).
Geoffrey Chaucer (1343-1400) developed the legitimacy of the vernacular, Middle English, at a time when the dominant literary languages in England were French and Latin.
Ars Nova: Polyphonic music, Guillaume de Machaut (1300-1377)
William of Ockham (1288–1348) was an English Franciscan friar and scholastic philosopher, known for the methodological method of the Occam's Razor.
The Scots win the Scottish Wars of Independence.
The Timurid dynasty (1370-1507) was a Persianate, Sunni Muslim dynasty of Turco-Mongol lineage which ruled over modern-day Iran, Afghanistan, much of Central Asia, as well as parts of contemporary Pakistan, Mesopotamia, Anatolia and the Caucasus.
China invents gunpowder weapons.
Romani people arrive in Europe.
First mouth anesthetic.
First edict against pollution in Paris (prohibiting the emission of funky gases)
Eyeglasses invented in Italy (1280s) The American Revolution (1763-1791) was the result of a series of social, political, and intellectual transformations in American society, government and ways of thinking. Americans rejected the aristocracies that dominated Europe at the time, championing instead the development of republicanism based on the Enlightenment understanding of liberalism. Virtue was the goal and corruption was the enemy. Among the significant results of the revolution was the creation of a democratically-elected representative government responsible to the will of the people. However, sharp political debates erupted over the appropriate level of democracy desirable in the new government, with a number of Founders fearing mob rule. Fundamental issues of national governance were settled with the ratification of the United States Constitution in 1788, which replaced the weaker Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union. In contrast to the loose confederation, the Constitution established a relatively stronger federal national government. The United States Bill of Rights of 1791 is the first ten amendments to the Constitution, guaranteeing many "natural rights" that were influential in justifying the revolution, and attempted to balance a strong national government with strong state governments and broad personal liberties. The American shift to liberal republicanism, and the gradually increasing democracy, caused an upheaval of traditional social hierarchy and gave birth to the ethic that has formed a core of political values in the United States. Founding Fathers: John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and George Washington.
Abolition of slavery.
The French Revolution (1789–1799) was a period of radical social and political upheaval in France. The absolute monarchy that had ruled France for centuries collapsed within three years. French society underwent an epic transformation, as feudal, aristocratic and religious privileges evaporated under a sustained assault from radical left-wing political groups, masses on the streets, and peasants in the countryside. Old ideas about tradition and hierarchy–of monarchy, aristocracy, and religious authority–were abruptly overthrown by new Enlightenment principles of equality, citizenship and inalienable rights. Promulgation of the law on Jewish emancipation. Dechristianisation of France during the French Revolution.
The First Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes that occurred in the period from about 1760 to some time between 1820 and 1840. This transition included going from hand production methods to machines, new chemical manufacturing and iron production processes, improved efficiency of water power, the increasing use of steam power and development of machine tools. The transition also included the change from wood and other bio-fuels to coal. The Industrial revolution began in Britain and within a few decades spread to Western Europe and the United States. Gross domestic product (GDP) per capita was broadly stable before the Industrial Revolution and the emergence of the modern capitalist economy. The Industrial Revolution began an era of per-capita economic growth in capitalist economies.
Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) was a British philosopher, jurist, and social reformer. He is regarded as the founder of modern utilitarianism. Bentham became a leading theorist in Anglo-American philosophy of law, and a political radical whose ideas influenced the development of welfarism. He advocated individual and economic freedom, the separation of church and state, freedom of expression, equal rights for women, the right to divorce, and the decriminalising of homosexual acts. He called for the abolition of slavery, the abolition of the death penalty, and the abolition of physical punishment, including that of children. He has also become known in recent years as an early advocate of animal rights. Though strongly in favour of the extension of individual legal rights, he opposed the idea of natural law and natural rights, calling them "nonsense upon stilts."
Sir William Herschel discovers the planet Uranus. (1781)
California mission are founded: Los Angeles (1781), Mission Santa Barbara (1786), Mission Santa Cruz (1791), etc...
Australia and Oceania: Colonization, convictinism and exploration
Bank of North America is chartered by the Continental Congress. (1781). When shares in the bank were sold to the public, Bank of North America became the country's first initial public offering.
Decline and end of the Ottoman Empire.
Decline and end of the Holy Roman Empire.
Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) was a German philosopher from Prussia who researched, lectured and wrote on philosophy and anthropology during the Enlightenment at the end of the 18th century. Kant's major work, the Critique of Pure Reason (Kritik der reinen Vernunft, 1781), aimed to unite reason with experience to move beyond what he took to be failures of traditional philosophy and metaphysics. He hoped to end an age of speculation where objects outside experience were used to support what he saw as futile theories, while opposing the skepticism of thinkers such as Hume. Kant pointed out that we all shape our experience of things through the filter of our mind. The mind shapes that experience, and among other things, Kant believed the concepts of space and time were programmed into the human brain, as was the notion of cause and effect. We never have direct experience of things, the noumenal world, and what we do experience is the phenomenal world as conveyed by our senses. These observations summarize Kant's views upon the subject–object problem. Kant published other important works on ethics, religion, law, aesthetics, astronomy, and history. These included the Critique of Practical Reason (Kritik der praktischen Vernunft, 1788), the Metaphysics of Morals (Die Metaphysik der Sitten, 1797), which dealt with ethics, and the Critique of Judgment (Kritik der Urteilskraft, 1790), which looks at aesthetics and teleology. He aimed to resolve disputes between empirical and rationalist approaches. The former asserted that all knowledge comes through experience; the latter maintained that reason and innate ideas were prior. Kant argued that experience is purely subjective without first being processed by pure reason. He also said that using reason without applying it to experience only leads to theoretical illusions. The free and proper exercise of reason by the individual was a theme both of the Enlightenment, and of Kant's approaches to the various problems of philosophy.
Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor abolishes serfdom. (1781)
In Switzerland, Anna Göldi is sentenced to death for witchcraft (the last legal witchcraft sentence). (1782)
In China, the Siku Quanshu is completed, the largest literary compilation in China's history (1782)
The Montgolfier brothers succeeded in launching the first manned ascent (1783).
John Wesley ordains ministers for the Methodist Church, the first Methodist church in the USA. (1784)
Antoine Lavoisier (1743-1794) was a French nobleman prominent in the histories of chemistry and biology. He helped construct the metric system, put together the first extensive list of elements, and helped to reform chemical nomenclature. He discovered that, although matter may change its form or shape, its mass always remains the same (principle of mass corsevation). He was an administrator of the Ferme Générale and a powerful member of a number of other aristocratic councils. All of these political and economic activities enabled him to fund his scientific research. At the height of the French Revolution, he was accused by Jean-Paul Marat of selling adulterated tobacco, and of other crimes and was eventually guillotined a year after Marat's death. Benjamin Franklin was familiar with Antoine, as they were both members of the "Benjamin Franklin inquiries" into Mesmer and animal magnetism.
Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855) was a German mathematician and physical scientist who contributed significantly to many fields, including number theory, algebra, statistics, analysis, differential geometry, geodesy, geophysics, electrostatics, astronomy and optics.
Britain receives its first bales of imported American cotton. (1784)
The dollar is unanimously chosen as the money unit for the United States (the first time a nation has adopted a decimal coinage system). (1785)
Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi (1743-1819) was an influential German philosopher, literary figure, socialite and the younger brother of poet Johann Georg Jacobi. He is notable for coining the term nihilism and promoting it as the prime fault of Enlightenment thought particularly in the philosophical systems of Baruch Spinoza, Immanuel Kant, Johann Fichte and Friedrich Schelling. Instead of speculative reason, he advocated Glaube (variously translated as faith or "belief") and revelation. In this sense, Jacobi anticipated present-day writers who criticize secular philosophy as relativistic and dangerous for religious faith. In his time he was also well-known among literary circles for his critique of the Sturm and Drang movement, and implicitly close associate Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, and its visions of atomized individualism. His literary projects were devoted to the reconciliation of enlightenment individualism with social obligation.
The Classical period of western music (1750-1820) falls between the Baroque and the Romantic periods. The best known composers from this period are Joseph Haydn, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, and Ludwig van Beethoven. Niccolò Paganini (1782-1840).
Neoclassicism is the name given to Western movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that draw inspiration from the "classical" art and culture of Ancient Greece or Ancient Rome. The main Neoclassical movement coincided with the 18th century Age of Enlightenment, and continued into the early 19th century, latterly competing with Romanticism.
William Jones (1746-1794) was an Anglo-Welsh philologist and scholar of ancient India, particularly known for his proposition of the existence of a relationship among Indo-European languages.
Weimar Classicism is a cultural and literary movement of Europe. Followers attempted to establish a new humanism by synthesizing Romantic, classical and Enlightenment ideas. The movement, from 1772 until 1805, involved Johann Wolfgang Goethe, Johann Gottfried Herder, Friedrich Schiller and Christoph Martin Wieland, and often concentrated on Goethe and Schiller during the period 1788–1805.
Thomas Jefferson returns from Europe, bringing the first macaroni machine to the United States (1789). Influenced by Dr. Benjamin Rush's argument against the excessive use of alcohol, about 200 farmers in a Connecticut community form a temperance association (1789).
Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-1797) was a British writer, philosopher, and advocate of women's rights. Wollstonecraft is best known for A Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792), in which she argues that women are not naturally inferior to men, but appear to be only because they lack education. She suggests that both men and women should be treated as rational beings and imagines a social order founded on reason.
Thomas Paine (1737-1809) was an English-American political activist, author, political theorist and revolutionary. As the author of two highly influential pamphlets at the start of the American Revolution, he inspired the Patriots in 1776 to declare independence from Britain. His ideas reflected Enlightenment era rhetoric of transnational human rights. He became notorious because of The Age of Reason (1793–94), his book that advocates deism, promotes reason and freethinking, and argues against institutionalized religion in general and Christian doctrine in particular. He also wrote the pamphlet Agrarian Justice (1795), discussing the origins of property, and introduced the concept of a guaranteed minimum income.
The novel of manners is a literary genre that deals with aspects of behavior, language, customs and values characteristic of a particular class of people in a specific historical context. The genre emerged during the final decades of the 18th century. The novel of manners often shows a conflict between individual aspirations or desires and the accepted social codes of behaviour. There is a vital relationship between manners, social behaviour and character. Physical appearances are overall less emphasised while manners and social behaviour remain the particular interests in the novel. The idea of manners assumes not only a social significance, as it is applied today, but a moral one as well, which preceded the social context in which it was used. What connects the two is the idea of "pleasing".
Freemasonry at its height. While Freemasonry has often been called a "secret society", Freemasons themselves argue that it is more correct to say that it is an esoteric society, in that certain aspects are private. The private aspects of modern Freemasonry are the modes of recognition amongst members and particular elements within the ritual. Despite the organisation's great diversity, Freemasonry's central preoccupations remain charitable work within a local or wider community, moral uprightness (in most cases requiring a belief in a supreme being) as well as the development and maintenance of fraternal friendship, as James Anderson's Constitutions originally urged amongst brethren.
Thomas Robert Malthus (1766-1834) was a British scholar, influential in political economy and demography. Malthus popularised the economic theory of rent. Malthus has become widely known for his theories about population and its increase or decrease in response to various factors. The six editions of his An Essay on the Principle of Population, published from 1798 to 1826, observed that sooner or later population gets checked by famine and disease. He wrote in opposition to the popular view in 18th-century Europe that saw society as improving and in principle as perfectible.
Giacomo Casanova (1725-1798) was an Italian adventurer and author from the Republic of Venice. He has become so famous for his often complicated and elaborate affairs with women that his name is now synonymous with "womanizer". The Second World War took place (1939-1945)
Early beginnings of new technologies (including computers, nuclear power and jet propulsion), often first developed in tandem with the war effort.
The Atanasoff–Berry Computer (ABC) was one of the first electronic digital computing devices. Conceived in 1937, the machine was not programmable, being designed only to solve systems of linear equations. It was successfully tested in 1942.
The modern evolutionary synthesis (also called the neo-Darwinian synthesis), produced between 1936 and 1947, reflects the consensus about how evolution proceeds. The previous development of population genetics, between 1918 and 1932, was a stimulus, as it showed that Mendelian genetics was consistent with natural selection and gradual evolution. The synthesis is still, to a large extent, the current paradigm in evolutionary biology. The modern synthesis solved difficulties and confusions caused by the specialisation and poor communication between biologists in the early years of the 20th century. At its heart was the question of whether Mendelian genetics could be reconciled with gradual evolution by means of natural selection. A second issue was whether the broad-scale changes (macroevolution) seen by palaeontologists could be explained by changes seen in local populations (microevolution). Julian Huxley invented the term, when he produced his book "Evolution: The Modern Synthesis" (1942). Other major figures in the modern synthesis include R. A. Fisher, J. B. S. Haldane and Ernst Mayr.
Richard Phillips Feynman (1918-1988) was an American theoretical physicist known for his work in the path integral formulation of quantum mechanics, the theory of quantum electrodynamics, and the physics of the superfluidity of supercooled liquid helium, as well as in particle physics (he proposed the parton model).
The development of commercial television.
Movies: Casablanca (1942), Citizen Kane (1941), The Great Dictator (1940), Pinocchio/Dumbo/Fantasia/Bambi (1940-1942)
Albert Camus (19131960) was a French Nobel Prize winning author, journalist, and philosopher. His views contributed to the rise of the philosophy known as absurdism. He wrote in his essay "The Rebel" that his whole life was devoted to opposing the philosophy of nihilism while still delving deeply into individual freedom. Although often cited as a proponent of existentialism, the philosophy with which Camus was associated during his own lifetime, he rejected this particular label. The Gulf War (1990-1991)
End of the Cold War: Fall of the Revolution of Eastern Europe and fall of the Iron Curtain (1989), Reunification of Germany (1990), Collapse of the Soviet Union (1991)
The formal beginning of the Human Genome Project, finished in 2003.
The launch of the Hubble Space Telescope. Hubble's Deep Field have been some of the most detailed visible-light images ever, allowing a deep view into space and time. Many Hubble observations have led to breakthroughs in astrophysics, such as accurately determining the rate of expansion of the universe.
Pope John Paul II (1820-2005) is credited with helping to end Communist rule in his native Poland and eventually all of Europe. John Paul II significantly improved the Catholic Church's relations with Judaism, Islam, the Eastern Orthodox Church, and the Anglican Communion. Though criticised by progressives for upholding the Church's teachings against artificial contraception and the ordination of women, and by traditionalists for his support of the Church's Second Vatican Council and its reform, he was also widely praised for his firm, orthodox Catholic stances.
Globalization: Private capital flows to developing countries. The growth of low cost communication networks cut the cost of communicating between different countries. Economic liberalization.
Birth of the World Wide Web, a system of interlinked hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. With a web browser, one can view web pages that may contain text, images, videos, and other multimedia, and navigate between them via hyperlinks.
The World Health Organization removes homosexuality from the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD). d
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