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Corey Dillon

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Transcript of Chemistry

Honors Project 2

(Ti )

Titanium can be found within the minerals of ilmenite, titanite, and rutile, as well as in iron ore slags ("Chemistry Explained")(Clark)("Titanium"). To extract the element, titatnium, from such minerals and ores either magnesium or sodium is used as a reduction agent, and when this process is completed the element, titanium will have been separated from the minerals and ore, thus leaving only titanium (Clark).
Current Applications
Future Applications
Physical and Chemical Properties
Physical Properties:
Chemical Properties
As shown by the periodic table above the element, titanium is a part of Group 4, or Group 4B, and is also a part of Period 4 and would classify titanium as a transition metal. Titanium is also a part of the d-orbital block, which means that the d-orbital contains the valence electrons for titanium and can be proved by the electron configuration which is 1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^2 3p^6 4s^2 3d^2.
Titanium's discovery was by that of a man named William Gregor while he was studying ilmenite, and while Gregor might have been able to identify most of the elements that composed ilmenite, he could not identify titanium and thus determined that this must be a new element in the composition of ilmenite. Despite the fact that Gregor didn't further pursue the discovery of titanium, that would be Martin Klaproth, he is still considered the one who ultimately discovered titanium. Yet, the pure form of titanium wouldn't be produced until nearly a century after Klaproth's death, (1817), by Matthew Hunter, (1910) ("Chemistry Explained")(Gagnon).
Appearance: As one can see by the picture, titanium is a shiny metal that takes on a gray appearance, however, it isn't limited to a solid as it can also come in the form of powder.
Malleability: "At higher temperatures, it becomes malleable and ductile" ("Chemistry Explained").
Melting Point: "Titanium has a high melting point of 3135°F (1725°C)" ("Physical Properties of Titanium and Its Alloys").
Flammability: As shown by the video above, when titanium is split into smaller pieces, such as shavings, titanium is ignitable and poses the threat of a possible explosion when exposed to high temperatures, however, "Massive titanium is stable at ordinary temperatures" (Dierks).
Reactivity: Similarly to the flammability, the reactivity of titanium is related to the temperature it is exposed as, "The metal's action with other substances proceeds more readily at elevated temperatures" ("Chemical and Mechanical Properties of Titanium and Its Alloys").
Strength: "It is as strong as steel and twice as strong as aluminum" (Gagnon). The strength of "unenhanced" titanium is, shown by the video below, strong enough to withstand being driven over.
Density: The density is "4.5 grams per cubic centimeter" (Gagnon).
Iron Ore Slag
VAR Furnace
The process by which titanium becomes useful
involves transporting the titanium to a processing plant (Constantinou). The most typical process to make this element, titanium, useful would be to use the Kroll process, which uses the VAR furnace shown above, however, as of recent a new process has been discovered which would lessen the 10 - 1 ratio, "(10 pounds of material needed to produce a 1-pound part)," "to 2 to 1 or even better" (Burns). The effectiveness of this new process is caused by keeping the powders "in their solid form during the entire procedure," which "saves a tremendous of energy required for processing, greatly reduces the amount of scrap and allows for new alloys and engineered composites" as said by Bill Peters of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Materials Science and Technical Division ("New Process Could Cause Titanium Price To Tumble").
Titanium is a very applicable metal, and as such has many uses, including the aviation industry, with which it is used in the bodies of jets and the surfaces of rockets ("Titanium is a transition metal"). "Other uses are in armored vehicles, armored vests, and helmets, in jewelry, eyeglasses, bicycles, golf clubs, and other sports equipment; in specialized dental implants; in power generating plants and other types of factories; and in roofs, faces, columns, walls, ceilings, and other parts of buildings" ("Chemistry Explained"). As well as all of these uses, still titanium has more, and such include clocks, bodily implants, paints, fabrics and textiles, razor blades, floor coverings, ink, ceramics, smokescreens, smoke effects, by skywriters as they produce their messages in the sky, in both plastic and paper materials, and as a "catalyst in industrial operations" ("Chemistry Explained")("Titanium is a transition metal").
Titanium golf clubs
Titanium eyeglasses
Titanium armored helmet
Titanium armored vest
The future of titanium appears to be promising as processing for titanium is advancing, as previously mentioned, and could decrease costs, which would allow titanium for application in future automobiles, "which will benefit from the decreased weight and will be able to deliver improved fuel economy" ("New Process Could Cause Titanium Price To Tumble")(Frank). Now, a solely electric automobile can travel approximately 100 miles, but with implementation of titanium nitride, figures can be expected to rise ten-fold, thus allowing it to travel approximately 1,000 miles (Harrop). As well as the autmobile industry, technological advances might be in the future for titanium, since titanium nitride was used to develop "an electrostatic capacitor with 10 billion nanoscale capacitors per square centimeter, giving it 250 times greater surface area that that of a conventional capacitor of comparable size" (Harrop). Yet, the future implementations of titanium further expand into that of horse racing, as titanium can be used in horseshoes, thus decreasing the weight of traditional aluminum or steel horseshoes, and allowing a race horse to reach faster speeds and increase their chances of winning (Ferro).
2015 Acura NSX
Titanium horseshoes
Titanium is the ninth most abundant element on earth and, as previously discussed, there is a newer process for processing extracted titanium, and, "Because no seperately produced Mg or TiCl4 is required, the environmental issues with producing Mg and TiCl4 are eliminated" (United States Environmental Protection Agency)("Chemistry Explained"). Due to such changes this new process "meets environmental benign green manufacturing process" as it "eliminated handling or storage of the hazardous reactants" (United States Environmental Protection Agency). Then with the application of such titanium, there are also environmental benefits, as previously mentioned with future cars and improved gas mileage. Overall, the benefits of titanium cannot be overlooked, and with a process to replace the Kroll Process, titanium's future appears to be both more promising and less expensive than ever before.
Works Cited
Advameg Inc. "Chemistry Explained." Titanium, Chemical Element. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Oct. 2013. <http://www.chemistryexplained.com/elements/T-Z/Titanium.html>.

Burns, Stuart. "New Titanium Refining Process Promises Lower Costs and More Efficient Processing." Steel Aluminum Copper Stainless Rare Earth Metal Prices Forecasting MetalMiner RSS. N.p., 23 Sept. 2010. Web. 18 Oct. 2013.

Clark, Jim. "Extraction and Uses of Titanium." Extraction and Uses of Titanium. N.p., 2005. Web. 15 Oct. 2013. <http://www.chemguide.co.uk/inorganic/extraction/titanium.html>.

Constantinou, Marios. "Titanium and Titanium Dioxide." Titanium and Titanium Dioxide. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Oct. 2013. <http://ww2.valdosta.edu/~tmanning/hon399/marios.htm>.

Dierks, S. "Titanium." Espi Metals. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Oct. 2013. <http://www.espimetals.com/index.php/msds/296-titanium>.

DOE/Oak Ridge National Laboratory. "New Process Could Cause Titanium Price To Tumble." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 22 May 2008. Web. 18 Oct. 2013. <http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/05/080520103428.htm>.

Ferro, Shaunacy. "3-D Printed Shoes Give Racehorses A Titanium Lift." Popular Science. N.p., 18 Oct. 2013. Web. 23 Oct. 2013. <http://www.popsci.com/article/technology/3-d-printed-shoes-give-racehorses-titanium-lift>.

Gagnon, Steve. "The Element Titanium." It's Elemental The Periodic Table of Elements. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Oct. 2013. <http://education.jlab.org/itselemental/ele022.html>.

Harrop, Peter. "Big Future for Titanium Compounds in the New Electronics and Electrics." - Printed Electronics World. IDTechEx, 19 Sept. 2012. Web. 23 Oct. 2013. <http://www.printedelectronicsworld.com/articles/big-future-for-titanium-compounds-in-the-new-electronics-and-electrics-00004744.asp?sessionid=1>.

K12. "Titanium Is a Transition Metal." Http://k12highschools.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Oct. 2013.

Key to Metals AG. "Chemical and Mechanical Properties of Titanium and Its Alloys." :: KEY to METALS Articles. N.p., 1999. Web. 10 Oct. 2013. <http://www.keytometals.com/Article126.htm>.

Key to Metals AG. "Physical Properties of Titanium and Its Alloys." :: KEY to METALS Articles. N.p., 1999. Web. 10 Oct. 2013. <http://www.keytometals.com/article122.htm>.

Markus, Frank. "Future Shock: 2015 Acura NSX." Motor Trend Magazine. N.p., 2012. Web. 23 Oct. 2013. <http://www.motortrend.com/future/future_vehicles/1204_2015_acura_nsx/>.

Minerals Education Coalition. "Titanium." Minerals Education Coalition. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Oct. 2013. <http://www.mineralseducationcoalition.org/minerals/titanium>.

Poulsen, Eldon. "Safety-Related Problems in the Titanium Industry in the Last 50 Years." Safety-Related Problems in the Titanium Industry in the Last 50 Years. N.p., 2000. Web. 10 Oct. 2013. <http://www.tms.org/pubs/journals/JOM/0005/Poulsen-0005.html>.

United States Environmental Protection Agency. "Final Report | A New Innovative Low-Cost Manufacturing Process to Produce Titanium | Research Project Database | NCER | ORD | US EPA." Final Report | A New Innovative Low-Cost Manufacturing Process to Produce Titanium | Research Project Database | NCER | ORD | US EPA. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Oct. 2013. <http://cfpub.epa.gov/ncer_abstracts/index.cfm/fuseaction/display.abstractDetail/abstract/8728/report/F>.

United States Environmental Protection Agency. "A New Innovative Low-Cost Manufacturing Process to Produce Titanium | Research Project Database | NCER | ORD | US EPA." A New Innovative Low-Cost Manufacturing Process to Produce Titanium | Research Project Database | NCER | ORD | US EPA. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Oct. 2013. <http://cfpub.epa.gov/ncer_abstracts/index.cfm/fuseaction/display.abstractDetail/abstract/8728>.













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http: //www.youtube.com/watch?v=P0eP-6j8d6s
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