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Teaching ELLs in Arizona
Transcript of Teaching ELLs in Arizona
In 2000, Proposition 203 repealed the existing bilingual education laws and changed the law to require that all classes be taught in English except that pupils who are classified as "English Learners" will be educated through sheltered English immersion programs during a temporary transition period. The
Sheltered English Immersion
programs will provide nearly all classroom instruction and materials in English, but may use a minimal amount of the child's native language when necessary. The temporary transition period for sheltered English immersion programs will normally not exceed one year. When an English learner has acquired a good working knowledge of English, that pupil will be transferred to a regular English language classroom.
AZ SEI 4-Hour Model
Arizona law requires a minimum of four hours per day of English Language Development (ELD) during the first year a pupil is classified as an ELL.
Stages of Language Acquisition
see the handout
Stages of Language Development and Cultural Adaptation
CLASSROOM INSTRUCTION THAT WORKS
Sheltered English Immersion (SEI)
AN ENGLISH LANGUAGE ACQUISITION PROCESS FOR CHILDREN IN WHICH NEARLY ALL CLASSROOM INSTRUCTION IS IN ENGLISH BUT WITH THE CURRICULUM AND PRESENTATION DESIGNED FOR CHILDREN WHO ARE LEARNING THE LANGUAGE. BOOKS AND INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS ARE IN ENGLISH AND ALL READING, WRITING, AND SUBJECT MATTER ARE TAUGHT IN ENGLISH. NO SUBJECT MATTER SHALL BE TAUGHT IN ANY LANGUAGE OTHER THAN ENGLISH, AND CHILDREN IN THIS PROGRAM LEARN TO READ AND WRITE SOLELY IN ENGLISH.
English Language Development (ELD)
Conversational English &
The AZ SEI Model
Pre-Emergent - Basic Level
heltered Instruction Observation Protocol
Stage 1 Preproduction (Pre-emergent) = 0-6 months
Stage 2 Early Production (Emergent) = 6 months-1 yr
Stage 3 Speech Emergence (Basic) = 1-3 years
Stage 4 Intermediate Fluency = 3-5 years
Stage 5 Advanced Fluency = 5-7 years
Adaptation of Content
Link to past experiences
Link past learning to new concepts
Variety of Techniques
Practice & Application
Learners benefit the most from hands-on activities which can be organized, created, counted, classified, stacked, experimented with, observed, rearranged, dismantled, etc.
Discussing and doing make abstract concepts concrete.
Social interaction promotes language development
Review & Assessment
Assessment of Objectives
Manipulatives, miniature objects, realia
Visuals (photos, pictures, drawings)
Body movement & pantomime
Facial expressions & gestures
Clear expression & articulation
Shorter, simpler sentences
Reduction of idiomatic expressions
Nouns instead of pronouns
Identify new word
Elicit background knowledge
Help learners identify cognates
Supply visuals to accompany words
Model correct pronunciation
Explain the meaning
Have learners create a visual representation
Appeal to the senses
Cues & Questions
Cues & Questions are used at the beginning of a lesson to access and activate background knowledge and connect to new learning.
Example: Provide a cue before viewing a video by explaining that students will see some things they already know about ___ and some things they do ot know.
Ask the question, "What do you know about ___?"
presented by LaurieAnne Rosenblatt
July 30, 2013
Daily standards and objectives are provided by the district.
Daily objectives should be displayed and reviewed orally with students.
Support core curriculum
Clarify confusing concepts
Make lessons relevant
Support different learning styles & multiple intelligences
Examples: hands-on manipulatives, realia, pictures, visuals, multimedia, demonstrations, related literature
Audio version of text
Make it Authentic Learning!
Students are more successful when they are able to make connections between what they know and what they are learning by relating classroom experiences to their own lives.
Assess what students do & do not know about a topic
Fill in the gaps
Help students connect what they do know with what is being taught
Example activities: read a story or picture book, view a video, pre-test with a partner, brainstorm, quick-write, KWL
Build a bridge from previous lessons and concepts to current lesson ("Last week we learned about nouns, this week we will learn how to describe nouns").
Point out how past learning is related to the current lesson.
Examples: Who remembers what we learned about ______? How does that relate to ______?
Refer to previously created anchor charts (posters, graphic organizers, rules).
Vocabulary instruction needs to be explicit
Students should be active in their vocabulary learning
Students should personalize their word learning
Students should be immersed in words (word walls, personal dictionaries, cognates)
Students should see and hear new words multiple times
Words should be presented in context, not in isolation
Teacher slows down rate of speech
Use simpler vocabulary
Reduce or eliminate idiomatic phrases
Point out cognates
Present instructions in a step-by-step manner with modeling/demonstration
Display a finished product as an example
Pair oral directions with written directions
Use a variety of techniques to accompany speech for making content comprehensible
Gestures, body language, pictures, realia
Provide a model of the process, task, or assignment
Preview material with students
Allow students alternative forms for expressing their understanding (hands-on activities, demonstrations, drawings, miming)
Provide repeated exposure to words, concepts, skills
Use graphic organizers
Use audio to accompany texts
Provide explicit instruction, modeling, and scaffolding in the use of learning strategies. Learners need to know: 1) What is a strategy? 2) How do I use it? 3) When and why do I use it? Include ample opportunities for learners to use the strategies.
3 Types of Strategies
Matching thinking & problem-solving strategies to learning situations
clarifying purposes for learning
Previewing a story
Establishing a purpose for reading
Using a graphic organizer
SQP2RS (Survey, Question, Predict, Read, Respond, Summarize)
GIST (Generating Interactions between Schemata and Texts)
adaptation of content
link to past experiences
link to past learning
variety of techniques
higher order thinking
providing correct pronunciation when repeating student responses
slowing speech, increasing pauses, allowing for wait time
using an instructional framework that includes explicit teaching, modeling, practice with peers, and independent application
one-on-one teaching, coaching, & modeling
small group instruction with peer practice
precision partnering (less experienced learner paired with a more experienced learner)
Promote strategy use by asking a variety of questions that promote critical thinking (see handout Levels of Thinking and Language Proficiency)
Higher-order questions need to be planned in advance - it's difficult to come up with them "on the fly"
Teach learners how to determine levels of questions (QAR, or Question-Answer Relationships)
Example: Literal level means the question can be found in the text. Inferential means the learner needs to "think and search" or read between the lines
Example Questions after a study of plant reproduction:
Are seeds carried by the wind? Student response= a nod or one-word response
Which of these seeds would be more likely to be carried by the wind: the round one or the smooth one? Why? Student response = analysis
solving problems in cooperative learning groups
working with partners
create posters/charts/maps and explain the features
provides much-needed language practice
stimulates the brain
allows processing time
Balance talking time between teacher and learners and among learners
Teacher talk 20% - 50% -- learner talk 50% - 80%
Interactive opportunities include:
asking & answering questions
giving & justifying opinions
Encourage elaborated responses
Take the learner beyond a yes/no response
"Tell me more about that."
"What do you mean by..."
"Why is that important?"
"What does that remind you of?"
Use at least
different grouping structures during a lesson for maximum learning and engagement.
Using a variety of grouping configurations
stimulates students' interest
increases student involvement
addresses different learning modalities & intelligences
promotes language development and practice
The length of time teachers wait for students to respond before interrupting, answering a question themselves, or calling on someone else to participate.
WAIT.....................until the silence feels REALLY, REALLY uncomfortable.
Have other students write down their responses & then check their answers against the final answer
Use "50-50" and "Phone a Friend" if student struggles to respond
"50-50" student chooses between two possible responses
"Phone a Friend" student asks a classmate for help
Avoid the dreaded "vocabulary list"
Teach vocabulary in context NOT in isolation
Provide ample opportunities for exposure and practice with vocabulary
Reinforce vocabulary through multiple modalities (reading, writing, listening, speaking)
Use TPR (drawing, charades, role-play, physical gestures, Pictionary)
Encourage learners to create word study books or dictionaries
Provide scaffolding & review of key concepts by:
Frequent summarizing during several points in the lesson
Example: "Up to this point we have learned three things about ____. Who remembers what they are?"
Use Outcome Sentences to wrap-up lesson. Students take turns selecting and completing an outcome sentence individually or with a partner.
I discovered; I still want to know; I learned; I still don't understand
Students summarize key concepts with a partner
Provide frequent feedback:
Use facial expressions and body language, such as a nod, smile, pat on the shoulder
Encouraging words and specific comments
Model correct English usage when restating a student's response
Assess objectives throughout the lesson.
Thumbs up/thumbs down
Number wheels for multiple-choice
Ensure feedback is comprehensible, useful, & relevant by modeling correct response