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Ethnic Groups In Africa
Transcript of Ethnic Groups In Africa
Africa: Progress &Problems
EQ 1: How does language contribute to ethnicity?
Language is one of the most important markers of one ethnic group to another because of its easy recognition. Since there are so many different and mixed languages throughout Africa, it is common for ethnic groups who are bordering each other to speak different yet intertwined languages. Misunderstanding however, can lead to massive conflict between ethnic groups.
EQ 2: How did the rise and fall of ethnic groups in Sudan lead to the deadly civil war?
Different ethnic groups in Sudan were being held together by common religion and culture. When colonization began, democratic institutions were commonly labeled unfair from religious leaders and religious land. There were many overthrown religious leaders during this time. Eventually, the ethnic groups with different beliefs in the north and south started a civil war.
EQ 3 : How do differences in colonialism affect major ethnic groups in Africa?
Since Africa was colonized by many different countries, there were many differences in colonial factors. Some of which were diverse government types. This lead to the disagreements in how country may be ruled-with the way different ethnic groups were accustom to-after gaining independence from their colonial country. Eventually, ethnic groups within a country or countries can result in mass conflict. Also, fighting over land of an ancient colony or the natural resources of a colony could lead to ethnic disputes.
How does the book Ethnic Groups in Africa support the quarters theme:the world around us?
Although many of us do not recognize groups as ethnic groups, they are all around us. An ethnic group is a large group of people with a common ancestry, a shared historical and cultural tradition, and an identifiable historical territory. An ethnic group may be as similar as a group of Judaism followers who all have ancestors from the holy land of Israel and have the same beliefs and traditions.This ethnic group may be disliked by another ethnic group by uncommon beliefs and a war may begin, as in World War Two where the Judaism ethnic group was disliked and a conflict began.
Beginning: Chapters 1-2
Africa is a region of vast ethnic diversity. " An ethnic group may be defined as a large group of people with a common ancestry, a shared historical and cultural tradition, and an identifiable historical territory" (pg.13) Many conflicts in Africa have started from ethnic groups disagreeing because of differences in language, lifestyle, politics, and religions. " Failure to develop stable democratic institutions are largely reflected on Africa's continuing ethnic problems." (pg. 17). Many languages play an important role in identifying ethnic groups. Language is referred to as "the glue that binds ethnic groups together" (pg.20) and the "most important marker of ethnicy" (pg.20). African languages are classified into four major groups: the Khoisan, Nilo-Saharan, Afro-Asiatic, and Niger Kordofanian.
Nonfiction Media Presentation
Author: Elizabeth Obadina
Middle: chapters 3-4
Sudan has many diverse ethnic groups whose disagreements lead to conflict. " Over the succeeding centuries, Christianity gained influence in Nubia, and in 508 it became Nubia's official religion." (pg.34). "In 632, most of the Arabian Peninsula had accepted the religion he founded, Islam." (pg.35). These religions fought over religious lands which led to a civil war and smaller conflicts in Nubia. Ethnic groups have a major impact on the government in Nigeria. The three main ethnic groups in Nigeria are the Yoruba, Hausa-Fulani, and Igbo and Nigeria is trying to make power-sharing agreements between them. First, the military ruled: "General Olusegun Obasasnjo took over as head of state" (pg. 73). They have tried democracy, but the ethnic groups continued to fight over who should rule: "With the approach of the 2007 elections, the ethnic maneuvering among Nigeria's wealthy ruling elite once again came to the fore." (pg. 75). Thus, a stable democratic institution has failed to stabilize.
End: chapters 5-6
The Hutus and Tutsis genocide in Rwanda was a result of ethnic conflict. There were three main reasons for the conflict. " First, there was a centuries long history of feudal relations between the Tutsis and Hutu farmers. Second, appalling, unthinking, racist exacerbation of Tutsis-Hutu differences occurred under German and Belgian colonial rule. And third, the post independence constitutional couldn't resolve ethnic conflict."(pg.80). Africa can not reduce ethnic factors, but they might be able to help in some ways. "Africa is simple too large, too complex, and to diverse to reduce the trajectory of the continent to a simple narrative of ethnic factors." (pg. 104). Since most ethnic problems are about scarce resources, weak democratic institutions, and winner-takes-all politics, "Economic development benefiting all segments of society, and political institutions giving all citizens a vote in their government, would serve to unite rather than divide Africa's many ethnic groups" (pg.105).
Pose and Answer Questions
"The World Around Us"
Obadina, Elizabeth. Ethnic Groups In Africa. Broomall, PA: Mason Crest Publishers, 2007