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Genetics & Heredity

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Jennifer Sweet

on 16 October 2016

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Transcript of Genetics & Heredity

Genetics
&
Heredity

TARGET: I can identify how traits are passed between generations.
It's time to apply everything you've learned so far!
QUIZ REVIEW
get pumped about genetics!
VOCABULARY TO KNOW:
Genetics:
the science of studying genes and heredity
Heredity:
passing of traits between generations
* inherited, hereditary
Generations:
production of offspring (babies)
Not only do you have 46 chromosomes, but you have 23 PAIRS!
These chromosomes are called
"________________________."
AKA: You have 23 homologous pairs.
The chromosomes in each pair code for the ___________ set of ______________
.

hair color
hair color
EYE COLOR
EYE COLOR
FRECKLES
Alleles
Alleles are
specific
forms of a trait.
TRAIT:
hair color
ALLELES:
Traits vs ALleles:
Though homologous pairs code for the same traits, they may
do not
have to have the same alleles.
BLONDE
BRUNETTE
BLUE EYES
BROWN EYES
FRECKLES!
* Can you think of another example?
What determines if the trait represented by the chromosomes is the trait you see?
BLONDE
HAIR
BROWN HAIR
What color hair does this person have?
LAW of DOMINANCE
For each trait, there is one allele that
dominates
the other, this is called the
dominant trait.


A
recessive
trait is
not

seen
in the presence of a dominant trait.
7th grade traits
Survey from Monday.
class data.
dominant & recessive Traits
Genotype vs phenotype
Genotype:
Phenotype:
The actual two alleles present for a trait.
The appearance of a trait
.
Represented by letters.
BLONDE
HAIR
BROWN HAIR
B
b
What color hair does this person have?
brown hair
genotype vs phenotype
Dominant alleles can be represented with
capital
letters.

Recessive alleles can be represented with
lower-case
letters.
EYE COLOR:
B = brown (dominant)
b = blue (recessive)
Genotype: BB, Bb
Phenotype: Brown
Genotype: bb
Phenotype: blue
homozygous
&
heterozygous
Dominant B: Brown Hair
Recessive b: Blonde Hair
Homozygous:

A homologous pair has two of the same alleles

Heterozygous
:
A homologous pair has different alleles for the same trait
BB, bb
Bb
1. offspring have half of each parent genes
2. The genes passed on to offspring are random!
3. Variation in traits among offspring.
example
Phenotype: Blonde hair
Genotype: bb
(Homozygous Recessive)
Phenotype: Brown Hair
Genotype: Bb
(Heterozygous Dominant)
Phenotype: Brown Hair
Genotype: BB
(Homozygous Dominant)
try it!!!
FILL IN THE MiSSING INFO!
what determines your sex?
Sex chromosomes
You receive two chromosomes for your 23rd pair of chromosomes (just like all of the others).

These chromosomes determine your sex.

There are two types: X and Y

Upon fertilization, if a zygote receives two "X" chromosomes, the baby will be a girl.

Upon fertilization, if a zygote receives an "X" and "Y" chromosome, the baby will be a BOY.
In other words...
Your sex is from genetics.

Heredity part 3:
How do you know what the traits of offspring will be?
making punnett squares NTBK
DO NOW:

Grab 2 DIFFERENT colored pencils of any color!

3/5 do now:
1. Get a whiteboard & expo marker from back of room

2. Take out Monster Traits from yesterday...
PUnnette squares & pedigrees
do now:
1. Take out Bikini Bottom Genetics from yesterday!

2. Get a whiteboard & marker again!

Let's continue!
http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072485949/student_view0/chapter3/interactive_activity.html
new stuff today!
exit ticket
http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/inheritance/
genetics
assessments & notes
labs & activities
inspirational genetics video
blonde
brown
black
red
bb
homozygous
Bb
Brown eyes
heterozygous
Brown hair
bb
homozygous
tt
TT = homozygous
Tt = heterozygous
Thursday AGENDA
Extra time?
KARYOTYPES
http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/chromosomes/karyotype/
http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/chromosomes/diagnose/
http://www.biology.arizona.edu/human_bio/activities/karyotyping/karyotyping2.html
1. quiz review!
2. new folders!
3. genetics video!
4. survey of traits!
http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/basics/
homologous pairs
"same"
"location"
same
traits
Review of Vocabulary so far...
Genetics:
Generation:
Heredity:
Homologous Pair:
Alleles:
Dominant Allele/Trait:
Recessive Allele/Trait:
the study of genes and heredity
the passing of genes between generations
the production of offspring
pair of chromosomes that code for the same traits
the
specific
form of a trait
an allele that overshadows/dominates another when present
an allele that is only seen in the absence of a dominant allele
2. crossword puzzle quiz
1. Review of "quality" lab answers
* independent, but open notes!
3. work on lab
* creating high quality answers
*what does it mean to meet/exceed expectations?
* you can answer all parts of the question... such as why/how/explain
* you can use evidence (your resources) to support your answers
* you include details - meaning you echo the question
* you can write a complete sentence
what does it mean to meet/exceed 7th grade expectations?
sample answers from inheritance lab...
QUESTION:
How do Mary, George, Elizabeth, and Carl compare to their parents?
SAMPLE ANSWERS:
sample answers from inheritance lab...
QUESTION:
How do Mary, George, Elizabeth, and Carl compare to each other?
SAMPLE ANSWERS:
sample answers from inheritance lab...
QUESTION:
How many of the four children inherit a trait from each one of the grandparents?
SAMPLE ANSWERS:
sample answers from inheritance lab...
QUESTION:
What does this activity reveal about how traits are inherited through generations?
SAMPLE ANSWERS:
They compare because 50% comes from Mom and 50% comes from Dad.
The four children both compare to each other because they have the parent traits and there father/mother have grandmother and grandpapa traits.
It's random.
because Mrs. Genega tought us?
i guess
The grandparents genes pass down from generation to generation their will always be 23 chromosomes from mom and dad
They compare to each other because they have chunks of their parents DNA and two of them are twins!
All the children's traits compare to their parents because they have a few chunks of DNA from each parent.
They would compare because your getting half of each parents DNA.
4 of 4, because the parents got DNA from the grandparents.
The four kids traits are compared to each other because the traits are all passed down.
Three out of four kids inherited traits from each of the grandparents.
It's completely random on what DNA you get.
Mary, George, Elizabeth, and Carl's traits would compare to their parents by DNA.
they don't there all random
Well they all come from the same parents.
They all do.
It tastes good.
It's colorful.
The parents inherit DNA from the grandparents which gets passed down to the offspring.
The generations all have the same DNA basically.
They compare by having the same DNA.
The children compare to each other by there mother and dad.
Everyone has the same genes in every family.
Gingerbread men have a lot of kids.
None of the four children inherited a trait from their grandparents.
The four children inherite about 25% but 50% from each parent.
Mary, George, Elizabeth, and Carl are similar to their parents and compare to their parents by having half of their traits from each parent.
The four children's traits compare to each other by being similar, but not the same.
What are they?
When do you get them?
How do you get them?
Why are they important?
2/23/16:
...quickly...
NO MARKERS!!!
THEN...find this in your notes!
http://www.mhhe.com/biosci/genbio/virtual_labs/BL_05/BL_05.html
http://virtuallabs.stanford.edu/life/pedigree.swf
http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/addiction/pi/
Full transcript