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The Canadian Government

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by

Tyler Roth

on 16 January 2014

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Transcript of The Canadian Government

Structure
Judicial
- This branch of government administers justice by interpreting and applying the law. It includes judges and the courts and operates independently from the other branches of government.
Constitutional Monarchy
Canada is a constitutional monarchy. This means that the powers of the monarchy in Canada are limited by the Constitution. The Constitution is a set of basic principles, laws and rules that explain the powers and duties of the government and the rights and freedoms of the citizens. Our formal head of state is a monarch. Our monarch is now Elizabeth II, who is also the Queen of the United Kingdom. As our Queen does not live in Canada, she appoints, under the advice of our Prime Minister, a Governor General to represent her authority in Canada.
Election
Canada’s electoral system is referred to as a "first past the post" system. The candidate with the most votes wins and an absolute majority is not needed. They receive a seat in the House of Commons and represent their riding as its Member of Parliament.
The Canadian Government
Canada's Government
Canada is a democratic constitutional monarchy, with a Sovereign as head of State and an elected Prime Minister as head of Government.

Canada has a federal system of parliamentary government: Government responsibilities and functions are shared between federal, provincial and territorial governments.

Federal responsibilities are carried out by the Monarchy and the Executive, Legislative and Judicial branches of Government.

Levels of Government
Federal
Legislative
- The legislative branch of government provides a forum for debate of the day's leading political issues, and has the power and responsibility to create laws. Legislative committees perform detailed studies of public policy. This branch consists of The House of Commons and The Senate.

Executive
- The executive branch operates, implements and enforces all the laws created by the legislative branch. It is composed of the Queen (represented by the Governor General), the Cabinet (a body of high-ranking members of government that includes the prime minister) and the administration. The administration includes all government departments, the armed forces, Crown corporations and other bodies.

Provincial
Municipal
Federal Government
The Canadian federal government consists of government departments, organizations and agencies. The Cabinet is the center of the federal government. Led by the Prime Minister, the Cabinet directs the federal government by determining priorities and policies, and ensuring their implementation.
Provincial Government
Under Canada’s Constitution, provincial governments have many key powers and jurisdictions, such as the provision of fundamental social services (for example, health, education and welfare), control over civil and property rights, and power over local government.
Municipal Government
A municipal government in Canada is a local council authority which provides local services, facilities, safety and infrastructure for communities.
If a government loses a "non-confidence" motion traditionally the Prime Minister will ask the Governor General to call an election. The Governor General when approached by the Prime Minister who has lost a vote of confidence will traditionally call an election.
A motion of no confidence is primarily a statement or vote which states that a person in a superior position is no longer deemed fit to hold that position. This may be based on that person falling short in some respect, failing to carry out obligations, or making choices that other members feel are detrimental.
Senate
The Senate of Canada is a component of the Parliament of Canada. The Senate is modeled after the British House of Lords and consists of 105 members appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister. The senate has the power to reject or change bills that the House of Commons proposes. They rarely reject a bill that is proposed.
House of Commons
The House of Commons is a democratically elected body, whose members are known as Members of Parliament. Members are elected by a majority vote ('first-past-the-post' system) in each of the country's electoral districts. MP's may hold office until Parliament is dissolved and serve for constitutionally limited terms of up to five years after an election. Seats in the House of Commons are distributed roughly in proportion to the population of each province and territory. The House of Commons holds far more power than the Senate. Although the approval of both Houses is necessary for legislation, the Senate very rarely rejects bills passed by the Commons.
Conservative
Conservative priorities include:

-create jobs through training, trade, and low taxes
-support families, through our Family Tax Cut, and more support for seniors and caregivers
-eliminate the deficit by 2014-15 by controlling spending and cutting waste
-make our streets safe, through new laws to protect children and the elderly
-stand on guard for Canada, by cracking down on human smuggling and strengthening the Canadian Armed Forces
Liberal
Liberal priorities include:

-Family Care: support for those caring for sick loved ones at home: $1 billion
-Learning Passport: direct financial support to families for higher education: $1 billion
-Secure Retirement Option, to help Canadians save
-Green Renovation Tax Credit: $400 million
-Increasing the general corporate income tax rate back to its 2010 level of 18 per cent
New Democrat Party
NDP's have worked to achieve:

-reduce the small business tax rate from 11 per cent to nine per cent to support a sector of our economy that creates nearly half of all new jobs in Canada
-Establishing a Job Creation Tax Credit by introducing a Job Creation Tax Credit that will provide up to $4,500 per new hire
-Employers will receive a one-year rebate on the employer contributions for the Canada Pension Plan and Employment Insurance premiums for each new employee hired
-Companies and organizations that keep a new employee for 12 months or more will be eligible for a retention bonus - a $1,000 non-refundable tax credit.This initiative will help create 200,000 family-supporting jobs a year
Bloc Quebecois
The Bloc has advocated for:

- Abortion rights
- Legalization of same sex marriage
- Decriminalization of cannabis (Marijuana)
- Legalization of assisted suicide
- Abolishing the Canadian Senate
- Withdrawal of troops from Afghanistan
Full transcript