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GENS9005 - Leadership

Sem 2 / 2014 - Group 21

Fiona Yong

on 8 October 2014

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Transcript of GENS9005 - Leadership

GENS9005 S2/2014 - #21
What is Leadership?
Definition: Leadership
is the ability of an individual to have influence on a group of people to achieve common objectives without the use of formal authority
Drucker (1985)
"The lifting of people's vision to a higher sight, the raising of their performance to a higher standard, the building of their personality beyond its normal limitations."
Leadership vs Management
Many organisations concentrate on management yet
both are important elements
to a company's success
Leadership has universal appeal but remains a major challenge for researchers.
Leadership is vital to help achieve organisational goals
Companies believe in effective management but it is likewise important to invest in effective leadership
Within today's changing market and competitive environment, effective leadership is vital in order for a company to succeed
Why Leadership?
Proposes that leaders have distinguished and exceptional attributes
Led to unproductive research for specific 'unique' qualities
Stogdill and Gardner identified 14 traits
Kouzes and Posner identified 20 attributes

So called leader qualities can be subjective
Overlooks the needs of the followers
Limited empirical evidence to support leadership effectiveness and leader traits
Attributes exhibited by successful leaders are not consistent
Traits between leaders and followers may overlap
Ignores situational factors
Background Information
Dropped out of high school at an early age
Produced a youth culture magazine followed by a mail order business
Established ‘Virgin Records’ and expanded into other businesses
Currently has over 300 companies worldwide (e.g. train company, mobile phones, luxury game preserve, space tourism company)
His experiences and outstanding leadership skills led to his success
Leadership Style ?
Believes that leader effectiveness is a function of the leader's behaviour
Leadership styles vary depending on how much authority a leader has over their subordinates
Autocratic vs. democratic: value quality over quantity
Task orientation vs people orientation
Production centred vs. employee centred
Role theory based studies: leaders adopt different behaviours, consistent with the different leadership roles

Situational factors are being ignored
Development oriented behavior is also lacking such as experimentation and generating and implementing change
Function fit between the person’s characteristics and the situation’s requirement
Dependent on the degree of authority used by the manager and the amount of freedom given to subordinates in decision making
Emphasis that the selection of a certain leadership style is dependent on the situation and other factors

Situation and context are taken into account
Leader chooses leadership style that works best in the situation/for the team/most suitable for the organisation: directive or supportive
Not one fixed style
Trait Approach
Situational Approach
Situational Leadership Theory
Main concept
Focuses primarily on the degree of subordinate participation that is appropriate in different situations.

Factors within the theory
Five types of leader decision-making styles, which are labeled AI, AII, CI, CII, and GII.

Decision-Making Model
Hersey & Blanchard
Situational Leadership Theory
Main concept
Based on the fact that effective leadership is dependent on the extent of people having the abiity and willingness to accomplish a task.

Factors within the theory
Coaching: Explain task in a supportive and persuasive way
Directing: Giving specific task directions and close supervision
Supporting: Shares ideas and participative decisions on task direction
Delegating: Allows the group to be responsible for task decisions
The appropriate leadership style is determined by answers of seven different questions.

Highly flexible
Mechanical procedure

Model shows a leader must gradually lose control over the follower as they become more responsible
High follower maturity = Delegating style
Low follower maturity = Directing style
Followers capable but unwilling/lack confidence = Supporting style
Followers are confident and willing but lack capability = Coaching style

A repeatable process where leaders can leverage to influence the behaviour of others.
Normative decision-making model
Branson demonstrates a situational leadership style with the ability to adapt and lead
Three crucial elements include listening, learning and laughter
His philosophy “to create something you are proud of”
Incorporates a transformational leadership style enhances communication between all stakeholders
Trust and confidence in employees leads to lower staff turnovers and improved performance
Knowledge of strengths and weaknesses essential to achieve business goals
Empirical Evidence
Aligns with Hersey and Blanchard’s “situational leadership” model, main focus on followers not leaders
Over 300 companies across 30 different counties with 50,000 employees to manage
Tedtalk and media articles regard Branson as an influential transformational leader
What is Leadership & It's Importance
Leadership Theories
Empirical Evidence
Case Study: Richard Branson
Behavioural Approach
What is it?

Examined physical, mental and social characteristics by looking at associations between individual traits and leadership effectiveness.

Gardner's Model (1989)
- 14 leadership attributes

Countless traits identified
No consideration of situational variables
What is it?
Believed certain behaviours were universally effective for leaders.

Ohio State University
- narrowed behaviours to initiated structure and consideration as important for effective leadership.
University of Michigan
- proposed two dimensions of leadership (employee orientated and production orientated)

No support from empirical research
Also did not consider situational influences
Advantages of Situational Approach
Practical approach that is easy to understand and applicable to a variety of settings
Flexibility - Different leadership styles depending on situation
Guidelines provided to be applied for each style and situation
Can be applied in different circumstances, not just businesses
Has shown to be successful for many years as it has been used in a variety of training programs for corporations
Barnett, T. (2014). Leadership Theories and Stduies. In: Encyclopedia of Business, 2nd ed.

Dearlove D. (2007). The Richard Branson Way Wiley & Sons, Chichester, UK

Ghuman, K. (2010). Management: Concepts, Practice & Cases. McGraw-Hill Education, pp.387-395.

Gilmore, T. and Hirschhorn, L. (1983), Management challenges under conditions of retrenchment. Hum. Resour. Manage., 22: 341–357.

Kalliath, T., Brough, P., O'Driscoll, M., Manimala, M., Siu, O. and Parker, S. (2014). Organisational Behaviour. 2nd ed. Australia: McGraw-Hill Education, pp.317-321.

Leadership-Central.com, (2014). Vroom-Yetton-Jago Decision-making Model of Leadership. (http://www.leadership-central.com/Vroom-Yetton-Jago-decision-making-model-of-leadership.html#axzz3FF9YTQA9) [Accessed 4 Oct. 2014].

Lunenburg, F. (2010). Models of Decision Making. Focus on Colleges, Universities, and Schools, 4(1).

Northouse, P. G. (2007). Leadership: theory and practice. 4th ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Robbins, S. P., & Judge, T. (2007). Organizational behavior. Upper Saddle River, N.J: Pearson/Prentice Hall.

Rush, G. (2006). Why We Need Leaders. [online] Mgrconsulting.com. Available at: http://mgrconsulting.com/index.php/reference-materials-mainmenu-34/articles-and-presentations-mainmenu-41/50-qwhy-we-need-leadersq-by-gary-rush-iaf-cpf [Accessed 4 Oct. 2014].

Tannenbaum and Schmidt (1973). How to choose a leadership pattern. Harvard Business Review. May-June 1973, 51 (3): 162-175
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