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Body language, facial expression and mood
Transcript of Body language, facial expression and mood
But first we need a warm up!
Introduction to emotions
The body and Power
The body and Anger
The body and Sadness
The body and Happiness
Why am I so emotional?
No you're not a teenager, you're just human
"a set of interactions mediated by neural hormonal systems, which can
(a) create affective experiences such as feelings of arousal, pleasure/displeasure
b) generate cognitive processes such as emotionally relevant perceptual effects, appraisals, labeling processes
(c) activate physiological adjustments to the arousing conditions
d) lead to behavior that is often, expressive, goal directed, and adaptive."
(Kleinginna & Kleinginna, 1981, p.355)
Paul Ekman (1999) suggests there are 15 basic emotions which are expressed universally through out all cultures
Most research relates to
happiness, sadness, anger,
disgust, fear and surprise
Tracy and Matsumoto (2008 ) found that people who were blind from birth show the same sign of pride as others
Ekman and Friesen (1969) developed a list of 5 categories of non-verbal behaviour used during communication
Michalak et al., (2009) found that depressed individuals walked slower with slower arm swinging and vertical head movements as well as slumping
Schnall and Laird (2003) found that practicing a happy facial expression would affect mood positively and have a lasting effect
Also found that practicing a happy display led to participants recalling happy memories than other conditions (ie: different emotion expressions)
Wilson and Peper (2004) tested body posture on recall
Found that participants in upright postures (compared to slumped) recalled more positive thoughts
Winters (2008) study reported that participants reported feeling more intense anger after inducing angry body language compared to other emotions.
Duclos, Laird, Schneider, Sexter, Stern and Van Lighten (1989) conducted two experiments in which participants adopted
1) angry body posture
2) angry facial expression
In both conditions participants reported feeling angry after the intervention
Huang, Galinsky, Gruenfeld and Guillory (2010) found that sitting in a powerful position lead participants to feel more powerful than simply thinking of times where the person felt powerful
Carney, Cuddy and Yap (2010)
Powerful postures lead to increased cortisol and testosterone, feelings of power and lead to increased likelihood to gamble
Cuddy, Wilmuth and Carney (2012)
Standing in a powerful position before an interview led to participants being rated more favourably on hireability
Facial Feedback Hypothesis
Strack, Martin and Stepper (1988)
Larsen, Kasimatis and Frey (1992) had participants attach two golf tees to the inner part of their eyebrows, participants were then instructed to touch the tees together
This could only be done by contracting the corrugator supercilii muscles which are used to express an emotionally sad espression
The effect? Participants in this condition reported feeling more intese feelings of sadness than participants in the control condition
Michalak, Mischnat and Teismann (2014) analysed the effect of body posture on individuals with depression
It was reported that when sitting in a slumped position participants chose more negative words to describe themselves than when in an upright position
Carney, D. R., Cuddy, A. J., Yap, A. J. (2010). Power posing: brief nonverbal displays affect neuroendocrine levels and risk tolerance. PsychologicScience. 21 (10), 1363-1368.
Cuddy, A. J., Wilmuth, C. A., Carney, D. R. (2012). The Benefit of Power Posing Before a High-Stakes Social Evaluation. Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 13, September 2012.
Duclos, S., Laird, J., Schneider, E., Sexter, M., Stern, L., & Van Lighten, O. (1989). Emotion-specific effects of facial expressions and postures on emotional experience. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57(1), 100-108.
Ekman, P. (1999). Basic Emotions. In T. Dalgleish & T. Power (Eds.), The Handbook of Cognition and Emotion (pp. 45‐60). Sussex: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Ekman, P. & Friesen, W. V. (1969). The repetoire or nonverbal behaviour: categories, origins, usage and coding. Semiotica, 1, 49-98.Wilson, V., & Peper, E. (2004). The Effects of Upright and Slumped Postures on the Recall of Positive and Negative Thoughts. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 29(3), 189-195.
Huang, L., Galinsky, A., Gruenfeld, D., & Guillory, L. (2010). Powerful Postures Versus Powerful Roles: Which Is the Proximate Correlate of Thought and Behavior? Psychological Science, 95-102.
Kleinginna, P., & Kleinginna, A. (1981). A categorized list of emotion definitions, with suggestions for a consensual definition. Motivation and Emotion, 5(4), 345-379.
Larsen, R., Kasimatis, M., & Frey, K. (1992). Facilitating the Furrowed Brow: An Unobtrusive Test of the Facial Feedback Hypothesis Applied to Unpleasant Affect. Cognition & Emotion, 6(5), 321-338.
Michalak, J., Mishnat, J., & Teismann, T. (2014). Sitting Posture Makes a Difference—Embodiment Effects on Depressive Memory Bias. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy.
Michalak, J., Troje, N., Fischer, J., Vollmar, P., Heidenreich, T., & Schulte, D. (2009). Embodiment Of Sadness And Depression--Gait Patterns Associated With Dysphoric Mood. Psychosomatic Medicine, 71, 580-587.
Schnall, S., & Laird, J. (2003). Keep smiling: Enduring effects of facial expressions and postures on emotional experience and memory. Cognition and Emotion, 17(5), 787-797.
Strack, F, Martin, L., & Stepper, S. (1988). Inhibiting and facilitating conditions of the human smile: A nonobtrusive test of the facial feedback hypothesis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 768-777.
Tracy, J., & Matsumoto, D. (2008). The Spontaneous Expression Of Pride And Shame: Evidence For Biologically Innate Nonverbal Displays. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105(33), 11655-11660.
Wilson, V.E. & Peper, E. (2004). The Effects of Upright and Slumped Postures on the Recall of Positive and Negative Thoughts. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 29 (3), 189-195.
Winters, A. (2008). Emotion, Embodiment, and Mirror Neurons in Dance/Movement Therapy: A Connection Across Disciplines. American Journal of Dance Therapy, 30(2), 84-105.
Emotion is defined as...