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History of Education in the Philippines
Transcript of History of Education in the Philippines
-Technical Education and Skills Development Act of 1994, creating the TECHNICAL EDUCATION AND SKILLS DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY (TESDA)
Higher Education Act of 1994, creating the COMMISSION ON HIGHER EDUCATION (CHED)
Under Section 2(2), Article XIV - Only elementary school was made compulsory.
The congress of the Philippines enacted the Republic act 6655 and the Free Public Secondary Education act of 1988
Education during the Philippine Revolution
- Illustrados spearheaded the propaganda movement
What about literacy?
Lack of funds, qualified teachers, instructional materials, and school houses contributed largely to the poor literacy of the people.
- Filipino’s lack of facility in Spanish because of the friars’ insistence to teach in the dialect must have prevented many people, including literate individuals, to benefit the materials written in Spanish language.
Rizal open the minds of the
Filipinos regarding the following:
Early Filipinos usually taught their children at home, Focusing more on vocational skills than academics.
Education during the Spanish Period (1521-1898)
The educational system of the Philippines during the Spanish Time was formal.
Before 1521 - Education before the coming of Spaniards
1521-1896 - Education during the Spanish Regime
1896-1898 - Education during the Philippine Revolution
1898-1935 - Education during the American Revolution
1935- 1941 - Education during the Philippine Commonwealth
1941-1944 - During the Japanese Occupation
1946-Present – under the Philippine Republic
- Trifocalization of the educational system of the Philippines
History of Education in the Philippines
The term Baybay literally means "to spell"
Educational Decree 1863
1. The friars disproportionate focus on religion the expense of any course.
2. The friars’ inordinate effort to ridicule and discourage the attempt of Filipinos to speak Spanish.
3. Choice of irrelevant course in the curriculum
4. Use of out modeled methods of instruction as well as the means of discipline
* There was no structured educational system.
There was an overwhelmingly high literacy rate, finding most of the natives were proficient in their indigenous form of writing, the Alibata/Baybayin.
it is the pre- Filipino writing system using symbols representing the letters of the alphabet with 3 vowels and 14 consonants.
* Education was "Religion-Centered"
* Education for the elite only
*Boys' and girls' schools were separated
*Inadequate, suppressed and controlled
The decree required the government to provide school institutions for boys and girls in every town.
The Spanish schools started accepting Filipino students.
The Normal School was also established which gave men the opportunity to study a three-year teacher education for the primary level.
- Secularization of Education
- Instruction of Spanish
- Greater attention to natural science
- The design of a relevant curriculum
- Improvement of higher centers of learning
- Improvement of Educational System
The reformists accused the friars as well as the resident colonial government for what they perceive to be a deliberate effort to keep the Filipinos ignorant
To prevent communication and understanding between the Spanish colonial authorities in Spain and the “Indios” or native Filipinos residing in the islands.
AMERICAN OCCUPATION (1898-1935)
The Americans brought many changes in their 45 years of reign in the country.
Schurman Commission (created on January 20, 1899), the first Philippine Commission recommended an adequate secularized public school system.
Taft Commission (March 16, 1900) under the leadership of William Howard Taft, free primary education became the method by which locals were instructed of their duties as citizens.
The Taft Commission authorized the importation of teachers from the United States, They arrived in the Philippines from 1901 to 1902, using the ship S.S Thomas, thus their reputation as “THOMASITES”
The Department of Public Instruction created the Philippine Normal School to train more teachers.
Other institutions of learning were established: Special Education, Marine Institute, School of Arts and Trades, Agricultural and Commerce Schools.
Education during the Philippine
Adjustments of school vacations to coincide with the working seasons in the Philippines.
Reduction of school years of Elementary Education to 6 years
Increase in admission age to at most 9 years
Commitment to complete at least the primary course as a requirement for admission
Adoption of one teacher-one class plan
Support of the national government to elementary education
Education during the Japanese Occupation
The schools were re-opened by the Japanese. Their educational policies mandated the teaching of Tagalog, Philippine History, and Character Education to Filipino students, with emphasis on love for work and dignity of labor.
There was a creation of Ministry of Education, health, and Public Welfare but was again renamed as Department of Public Instruction.
Changes in education during the Japanese Occupation:
1. To stop depending on Western Countries like U.S. and Great Britain. Promote and enrich the Filipino Culture.
2. Recognize that the Philippines is a part of Greatest East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere so that the Philippines and Japan will have good relations.
3. To be aware of materialism to raise the morality of the Filipinos.
4. To learn and adopt Nihongo and to stop using English language.
5. To spread elementary and vocational education
6. To emphasized dignity of labor and love for work.
Japanese educational policies were embodied in Military Order No. 2 in 1942. The Philippine Executive Commission established the Commission of Education, Health and Public Welfare and schools were reopened in June 1942.
Education under the Philippine Republic
In 1972, The Department of Education became the Department of Education and culture under Proclamation 1081, which was signed by President Ferdinand Marcos
President Marcos ratified the 1973 Constitution by proclamation 1102 on January 17, 1973. It sets out the three fundamental aims of education in the Philippines:
1. To foster love of country
2. Teach the duties of citizenship; and
3. Develop moral character, self-discipline, and scientific, technological and vocational efficiency.
In 1978, by the Presidential Decree No. 1397, The Department of Education and Culture became the Ministry of Education and Culture.
Education Act of 1982
Provided for an integrated system of education covering both formal and non-formal education at all levels.
Provided for government financial assistance to private schools.
Upgraded the obligations and qualifications required for teachers and administrators.
of the act sought to upgrade education institutions' standards to achieve "quality education" through voluntary accreditation for schools, colleges and universities.
Section 16 and 17
This act also created the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports
Education under the 1987 Philippine Constitution
Section 3, Article XIV of the Philippine Constitution contains the fundamental aims of education
March 26, 1988
Section 3. (1) All educational institutions shall include the study of the Constitution as part of the curricula.
(2) They shall inculcate patriotism and nationalism, foster love of humanity, respect for human rights, appreciation of the role of national heroes in the historical development of the country, teach the rights and duties of citizenship, strengthen ethical and spiritual values, develop moral character and personal discipline, encourage critical and creative thinking, broaden scientific and technological knowledge, and promote vocational efficiency.
(3) At the option expressed in writing by the parents or guardians, religion shall be allowed to be taught to their children or wards in public elementary and high schools within the regular class hours by instructors designated or approved by the religious authorities of the religion to which the children or wards belong, without additional cost to the Government.
Trifocalization of the Philippines
The congressional commission on Education (EDCOM) recommended the division of DECS into three parts.
Republic Act 7722 -
Republic Act 7796
Republic Act 9155
The Curriculum required the study of Christian doctrines, values, history as well as reading and writing in Spanish, Mathematics, Agriculture, etiquette, singing, world geography and Spanish history.
1. School Calendar became longer
2. No summer vacation for students
3. Class size increased to 60
4. Deleted anti-asian opinions, banned the singing of american songs, deleted american symbols, poems and pictures
5. Nihongo as a means of introducing and cultivating love for japanese culture.