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World War II

Chapters 24 and 25 - US History IIB
by

Juanita Cardwell

on 26 March 2013

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Transcript of World War II

In Hiroshima almost every single building was destroyed within 43 seconds of the bomb being dropped

Estimated 200,000 people killed from injuries and radiation

Emperor Hirohito - could not bear to see his people suffer and ordered the surrender
September 2, 1945 - formal ceremonies on U.S. Battleship Missouri July 25, 1945 - Truman ordered military to make final plans to drop the bomb
July 26 - U.S. warns Japan that it faced "prompt and utter destruction" unless they surrendered
Japan refused

August 6, 1945 - B-29 bomber (Enola Gay) released an atomic bomb (Little Boy) on the city of Hiroshima
August 9, 1945 - second bomb (Fat Man) released on Nagasaki Nationalism Nationalism - loyalty to one's country above all else

Post World War I - Rise of powerful dictators
-believed in nationalism
-wanted territorial expansion

Peace treaties begin failing. Communism - economic and political system based on one-party government and state ownership of all property

Totalitarian - government trying to exert control over its citizens, individuals have no rights, government suppresses all opposition

Fascism - nationalism and putting the interest of the state above those of individuals, power in a strong single leader with a small group of devoted party members

Nazism - extreme nationalism, "master race" would rule the world, national expansion or lebensraum
lebensraum - living space Soviet Union Joseph Stalin
- "man of steel"
-focused on creating model communist state
-abolished privately owned farms and replaced them with government-owned farms
-"five-year plans" - industrialization
-purged or eliminated anyone who threatened his power
-estimate: 8-13 million deaths World War II Chapters 24 and 25 World Peace? Fascism Joseph Stalin Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Communism
Totalitarian Nazism Fascism Nazism Adolf Hitler
-became leader of National Socialist German Workers' Party
-Der Fürhrer - "the leader"
-book Mein Kampf - my struggle - set out the basic belief of Nazism
-believed Germans were superior and the blue-eyed, blond-haired were "Aryans" - a "master race"
-"inferior races" were Jews, Slavs, nonwhites
-lebensraum even if by "the might of a victorious sword"
-6 million unemployed, many joined Hitler's private army - storm troopers or Brown Shirts
-appointed chancellor and quickly established the Third Reich or Third German Empire Benito Mussolini
-"Italy wants peace, work, and calm. I will give these things with love if possible, with force if necessary."
-by 1921 had established the Fascist Party
-1922 marched on Rome with his followers "Black Shirts"
-government officials, the army, the police all sided with Mussolini
-Italian king appointed Mussolini head of the government
-Il Duce - "the Leader" Japan Militarists launched a surprise attack and took control of Chinese Province of Manchuria, successful invasion put the militarists in control of Japan's government Europe and Africa Hitler sent troops into the Rhineland - German region bordering France and Belgium.


Mussolini invaded and took over Ethiopia. Spain Francisco Franco
-Spanish general led rebellion in 1936 against the Spanish republic which caused the Spanish Civil War
-Small amount of aid from US - 3,000 Americans formed Abraham Lincoln Battalion and went to Spain
-Franco had support from Hitler and Mussolini
-troops
-weapons
-tanks
-fighter planes
-German and Italian dictators forged Rome-Berlin Axis
-Franco became dictator in 1939 United States Clung to isolationism - policy of remaining apart.

Tried to establish trade and good relations.

Neutrality Acts - 1935
-first 2 outlawed arms sales or loans to nations at war
-3rd extended ban on arms sales and loans to nations engaged in civil wars Losing Neutrality "The peace, the freedom, and the security of 90 percent of the population of the world is being jeopardized by the remaining 10 percent who are threatening a breakdown of all international order and law. Surely the 90 percent who want to live in peace under law and in accordance with moral standards that have received almost universal acceptance through the centuries, can and must find some way . . . to preserve peace."
-President Roosevelt War in Europe Austria November 5, 1937
-Hitler declares plan to absorb Austria and Czechoslovakia into the Third Reich

Austria
-Most of people there were German and wanted to be unified with Germany
-March 12, 1938 - German troops march into Austria unopposed
-March 13 - Anschluss - "union" was complete Czechoslovakia Sudetenland - western border region of Czechoslovakia Czechoslovakia Hitler claimed the Czechs were abusing the Sudetenland Germans.
Hitler invited French Premier Édouard Daladier and British prime minister Neville Chamberlain to Munich
-Munich Agreement was signed in the effort to stop German expansion by giving the Sudetenland to Germany
-Chamberlain claimed, "I believe it is peace in our time."
-Winston Churchill - Chamberlain's rival - claimed it was appeasement (giving up principles to pacify an aggressor) Nonaggression Pact Germany Soviet Union Hitler and Stalin signed a nonagression pact in which the two agreed to never attack each other.

What happens to Poland?

Second secret pact in which they agreed to divide Poland between them. Blitzkrieg September 1, 1939
-German Luftwaffe (air force) drops bombs
-German tanks cross into the country
Blitzkrieg
-Lightening War
-Used more advanced military technology
-Take by surprise and quickly suppress
September 3, 1939
-France and Britain declare war on Germany
End of September
-Germany controlled Poland before the allies troops could arrive France and Britain Troops at the France/Germany border wait for Germany to attack.
-Sitzkrieg - "sitting war" or phony war Denmark, Norway, Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg April 9, 1940
-Surprise attack on Denmark and Norway by Hitler
-Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg were next France Germans attack France through Belgium forcing 330,000 British, French and Belgian troops across the English Channel France Italy joined the war siding with Germany and helped to invade France from the South while the Germans came from the North.

France fell to German control in June 1940.

French General Charles de Gaulle fled to England and set up a government-in-exile. Britain Germany launched air and naval attacks on Britain in the summer of 1940.

Every night for 2 months, German planes bombed British targets.

Britain's Royal Air Force fought back using new technological device called radar to plot the flight paths of German planes even in the dark. The Holocaust On a piece of paper, this can be in your notes, write down everything you know or have heard about the Holocaust. Think about the people involved, the time it happened, where it happened, treatment of people involved, etc.

Share with your neighbor the things you wrote down. The Holocaust Holocaust - systematic murder of 11 million people from across Europe
(more than half of the 11 million were Jews)

Hitler found support from the Germans to blame the Jews for the economic problems and the German defeat in WWI.

1935 - Jews stripped of their German citizenship, jobs and property and were forced to wear a bright yellow Star of David on their clothing. The Holocaust Kristallnacht - "Night of Broken Glass"
-Nazi storm troopers attacked Jewish homes, businesses and synagogues
-About 100 Jews killed
-30,000 Jews were arrested
-hundreds of synagogues burned
-Nazis blamed the Jews for the destruction Refugees Jews fleeing Germany had a hard time finding a place to go.
-France had already taken 40,000 Jewish refugees and didn't want more
-Britain only accepted 80,000
-Palestine was only allowed to accept 30,000
-United States accepted 100,000 refugees

Germany's foreign minister said, "We all want to get rid of our Jews. The difficultly is that no country wishes to receive them." Hitler's Solution "Final Solution" - policy of genocide (deliberate and systematic killing of an entire population) and rested on belief of a "master race"
Targeted Jews and other groups that were considered inferior or unworthy or "enemies of the state"
-Gypsies - seen as inferior
-Freemasons - supporters of the "Jewish conspiracy"
-Jehovah's Witnesses - refused to salute Hitler or join the army
-Other Germans - homosexuals, mentally deficient, mentally ill, incurably ill
Nazi death squads were the elite Nazi "security squadrons" or SS
-rounded up all Jews - men, women, children and babies - shot them on the spot "Final Solution" Many Jews were forced to relocate and were put into segregated Jewish areas that were overcrowded called ghettos.

Bodies of victims piled up on the streets, people were forced to work for German factories


Jews formed resistance movements, published underground newspapers, held secret schools, and even had theater and music groups. Concentration Camps Many Jews were dragged from their homes and put on trains or trucks and shipped to concentration camps.
-concentration camps - labor camps
-Camps were originally created for political opponents and protesters
-Life in the camps was that of hunger, humiliation and work that would almost always lead to death
-Work was dawn to dusk, 7 days a week until you collapsed
-Forced to wear color coded triangles on their uniforms As you view each of the images put yourself in their position. After seeing all of them write down how you feel about the treatment of the people placed in concentration camps. Mass Murder Overwork, starvation, beatings, and bullets did not kill the Jews fast enough for the Nazis.
Death camps were built that had huge gas chambers that could kill 12,000 people in a day.
Gas chambers
-weak sent there and told to undress for a shower
-given soap to further the deception
-bodies were first placed in mass graves, but the smell and bodies was evidence of mass murder
-crematoriums built to burn the dead
Other forms of extermination - shot, hanged, or injected with poison.
Many died from medical experiments. Medical Experiments Experimented to determine low air pressure effects on body. Freezing experiments to find ways to treat hypothermia. Experimental vaccines to treat contagious diseases and germs injected to study effect of diseases. Sterilization methods tested. Twin experiments were extreme, twins were examined from head to two, biopsies were taken of tissues, photographed, many were then killed and their organs were examined and experimented on as well. Survivors About 6 million died in concentration camps, but miraculously some people survived the Holocaust and the concentration camps.

"I do believe that if you were blessed with imagination, you could walk through it. If, unfortunately, you were a person that faced reality, I think you didn't have much of a chance."
-Gerda Weissmann Klein America Moves Toward War Cash-and-carry - US could sell arms to warring nations if they paid in cash and carried them on their own ships
-Neutrality Act of 1939 - allowed cash-and-carry policy

September 27, 1940
-Germany, Italy and Japan signed the Tripartite Pact and became known as the Axis Powers
-Agreed to come to aid of the others if they were attacked, therefore if the US attacked they would face a two-ocean war

Congress boosted defense spending and passed the first peacetime military draft - The Selective Training and Service Act - drafting people before we were in declared war

Roosevelt runs for a 3rd term and wins Debate "The United States should not become involved in European wars." v. "The United States must protect democracies throughout the world." "Arsenal of Democracy" Lend-Lease - similar idea to cash-and-carry - President would lend or lease arms and other supplies to "any country whose defense was vital to the United States"
Lend-Lease Act - March 1941

Lead-Lease extended to Soviet Union after Germany invaded S.U. German Wolf Packs Hitler sent hundreds of German submarines or U-boats to attack supply ships.
Individual U-boat attacks gave way to wolf pack attacks. Plans for War FDR and Winston Churchill met secretly and created the Atlantic Charter - a joint declaration of war aims, both pledged:
-collective security
-disarmament
-self-determination
-economic cooperation
-freedom of the seas Allies Atlantic Charter became basis for "A Declaration of the United Nations"
(United Nations being the nations that fought the Axis powers) - signed by 26 nations. War Looms -American ships were being shot by German U-boats.
-Roosevelt stated "And history has recorded who fired the first shot."
-Senate lifted ban against arming merchant ships.
-Declaration of full-scale war seemed inevitable. JAPAN ATTACKS! Hideki Tojo - chief of staff of Japan's Kwantung Army, launched invasion into China

French, Dutch and British were too busy fighting Hitler, only the United States blocked the way for the Japanese.

Japanese took over Indochina (Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos), U.S. cut off trade.
-Cut off their essential supply of oil

Hideki promised the emperor he would keep peace with the U.S., but ordered an attack on November 5, 1941.
-U.S. intercepted messages, knew about an attack coming, but not where
-Peace talks lasted for a month, but Japanese envoy told to reject all peace proposals This means War! Pearl Harbor December 7, 1941
-180+ Japanese warplanes attacked Pearl Harbor (largest U.S. naval base in the Pacific) Damage Less than 2 hours
-2,403 Americans killed
-1,178 wounded
-21 ships sunk or damaged (8 battleships included)
-300 aircraft damaged or destroyed

U.S. Navy suffered more damage from this one strike than in all of WWI America Reacts Washington D.C. - moods ranged from outrage to panic

President Roosevelt - Dec. 8, addressed Congress and asked for a declaration of war on Japan
-Congress quickly approved

Japan was a part of the Tripartite Pact or Axis Powers
-Germany and Italy both declared war on U.S. 3 days later Appeasement Americans Join the War Effort The Japanese hoped that by attacking Pearl Harbor, America would shrink from further conflict.
"trembling in her shoes"

Americans on the other hand were trembling with rage.
"Remember Pearl Harbor!" Soldiers for War Recruiting offices were filled with young Americans.
-5 million volunteered
-This would not be enough to fight this war on two global fronts - Europe and the Pacific

Selective Service System expanded the draft.
-10 million more soldiers provided under the draft

Soldiers went through 8 weeks of basic training to turn raw recruits into disciplined, battle ready soldiers. Expanding the Military -Military work force needs were so great that Army Chief of Staff General George Marshall pushed for women to be more involved.
-Women's Auxiliary Army Corps (WAAC) - became law on May 15, 1942 and gave women and official status and salary, but few benefits
-July 1943 Auxiliary was dropped and women received full military benefits
-Women worked as:
-nurses
-ambulance drivers
-radio operators
-electricians
-pilots Minorities Minority groups - African-Americans, Native Americans, Mexican-Americans, Asian-Americans - why fight in a war for democracy when we don't have those rights ourselves?
"Just carve on my tombstone, 'Here lies a black man killed fighting a yellow man for the protection of a white man.'"

Despite feelings like this they contributed many men to fight:
-300,000 Mexican-Americans
-1 million African-Americans
-46,000 Asian-Americans (some served as spies and interpreters)
-25,000 Native Americans Industrial Response 1942 - automobile production was ending for private use - within two weeks of shutdowns the automobile plants were retooled to produce tanks, planes, boats and command cars.
-Mechanical pencil plant = bomb parts
-Bedspread manufacturer = mosquito netting
-Soft-drink factory = filling shells with explosives = = Labor Labor force saw increase of numbers - 6 million workers were women.
-Employers feared women would not have the stamina for factory work, but were quickly proved wrong.
-Employers were quick to hire them once they proved they were able, especially since they only earned 60% as much as men.
Minorities were able to gain more ground in being hired for different positions.
-A. Philip Randolph - African-American that organized a plan to march on Washington D.C., President Roosevelt knew the city could not handle the number of people rallied behind the cause and gave an executive order for employers and labor unions to hire without discrimination. Scientists 1941 - Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD) - to bring scientists into the war effort
-helped improve radar and sonar
-encouraged use of pesticide DDT
-pushed for development of "miracle drugs" like penicillin
Their biggest achievement was the secret development of the atomic bomb.
-Advisory Committee on Uranium reported in 1941 it would take 3-5 years to build an atomic bomb
-OSRD pushed to speed up the development and the research and development and the Manhattan Project was the code name for this work. Federal Government War efforts resulted in fewer consumer products - prices seemed likely to shoot upwards.

Office of Price Administration (OPA)
-fought inflation by freezing prices on most goods
-Congress raised income tax rates and extended tax to millions of people who had never paid it before
-encouraged people to buy war bonds with their extra money

War Production Board (WPB)
-created to ensure the armed forces had the necessary resources to win the war
-chose which companies would convert from peacetime to wartime production
-organized nationwide drives for scrap iron, tin cans, paper, rags and cooking fat Rationing OPA set up a system for rationing - fixed allotments of goods deemed essential for the military.
-ration books given to each household allowed them to use the coupons to buy scarce goods like meat, shoes, sugar, coffee and gasoline

Many people accepted rationing as their personal contribution to the war effort. US and Britain Join Forces After the attack on Pearl Harbor, Britain and the U.S. would forge a remarkable alliance between the two nations.

Prime Minister Winston Churchill arrived at the White House on December 22, 1941 and spent the next 3 weeks making war plans with the President.

It was decided that Germany and Italy were the first priority.

After gaining the upper hand in Europe the resources could then be poured into the Pacific War. Battle of the Atlantic After the attack on Pearl Harbor, Hitler ordered submarine raids against the U.S. east coast ships.
-His goal in the Battle of the Atlantic was to prevent food and war materials from reaching Great Britain and the Soviet Union.
-In the first 4 months of 1942 Germany sank 87 ships in the Atlantic
-Seven months into 1942 German wolf packs destroyed a total of 681 Allied ships Battle of Stalingrad -Germans were fighting in Soviet Union since June 1941
-November 1941 - stopped by the cold
-Summer 1942 - Germans took the offensive in hopes to capture oil fields in the Caucasus Mountains and to wipe out Stalingrad on the Volga River
-August 1942 - German army approaches Stalingrad - Luftwaffe bombed the city
-Slowly took the city house by house with hand-to-hand combat North Africa Front Stalin wanted the U.S. and Britain to attack Europe and divert the German troops from the Soviet front.

Instead Operation Torch was launched - invasion of Axis-controlled North Africa - OT was commanded by General Dwight D. Eisenhower.

November 1942 - 107,000 Allied troops land in Casablanca, Oran, and Algiers and the Afrika Korps surrendered in May 1943. Italian Campaign Roosevelt, Churchill and their commanders met in Casablanca and agreed that only the unconditional surrender of the Axis Powers would be accepted. The Allies would dictate the peace terms.

What was the next step? Attack through France and go to Germany or attack Italy?

-Summer 1943 - Italian campaign was off to a good start
-July 25, 1943 - Mussolini had been forced to resign
-Italians were ready to celebrate the end of the war, but Hitler would rather fight the Allies in Italy than on German Soil.
-Anzio - bloody battle in 1944 - Germans refusing to give up Italy to Allies control. Heroes In Combat 99th Pursuit Squadron - the Tuskegee Airmen - African-American unit - won 2 Distinguished Unit Citations (military's highest commendation) for outstanding aerial combat

92nd Infantry - Buffaloes - African-American unit - won 7 Legion of Merit award, 65 Silver Stars, 162 Bronze Stars for courage under fire

17 Mexican-Americans awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor

100th Battalion - Purple Heart Battalion - Japanese-American unit - became most decorate unit in U.S. history Liberating Europe Operation Overlord - plan to invade France and free Western Europe - Eisenhower

3 million British, American and Canadian troops were set to attack Normandy in Northern France
To keep this plan secret, the Allies created a phantom army and sent radio messages they knew the Germans could read that they would attack at Calais, Hitler in turn kept a large army there.

Originally set for June 5, bad weather prevented the strike. June 6, 1944 received the go ahead from Eisenhower - D-Day.
3 divisions parachuted behind enemy lines and thousands upon thousands were brought in by sea. D-Day German retaliation was brutal, worst on Omaha Beach.

Allies held the beachheads - after 7 days of fighting they held the 80-mile strip of France and within a month landed a million troops, 567,000 tons of supplies and 170,000 vehicles.

June 25th - General Omar Bradley provided a gap in the German line at St. Lo that allowed General George Patton and his Third Army to reach the Seine River south of Paris.

By September 1944 the Allies freed France, Belgium and Luxembourg. "People were yelling, screaming, dying, running on the beach, equipment was flying everywhere, men were bleeding to death, crawling, lying everywhere, firing coming from all directions." Battle of the Bulge October 1944 - Americans captured 1st German town - Aachen
In response Hitler ordered his troops to break through and recapture the Belgian port of Antwerp.
December 16, 1944 - German tanks break through weak American lines along an 80-mile front and drove in 60 miles into Allied territory creating a bulge.
120 American soldiers captured and herded into a large field and killed by the SS troopers Death Camps Soviet troops in July 1944 were the first to come to a death camp.
-Majdanek in Poland - SS guards were trying to burn and bury evidence
-Thousands of starving, barely alive prisoners
-World's largest crematorium
-Storehouse containing 800,000 shoes

"This is not a concentration camp, it is a gigantic murder plant. Surrender April 25, 1945 - Soviet army stormed Berlin

Hitler in his underground headquarters prepared for the end.
-April 29, married Eva Braun, his longtime companion and wrote out his last address to the German people - blamed the Jews for starting the war and his generals for losing it.
-April 30 - shot himself while his wife swallowed poison, bodies were then taken outside, soaked with gasoline and burned

A week later Eisenhower accepted the surrender of the Third Reich.

May 8, 1945 - Allies celebrate V-E Day - Victory in Europe Day FDR would not see V-E Day, he had a stroke and died on April 12, 1945 and Harry S. Truman would become president. Stemming the Japanese In the six months after Pearl Harbor Japanese conquered an empire that dwarfed Hitler's Third Reich.
Japanese took
-Hong Kong
-French Indochina
-Malaya
-Burma
-Thailand
-Much of China
-Dutch East Indies
-Guam
-Wake Island
-Solomon Islands
-Several Alaskan Islands Japanese Advances Philippines - Americans and Japanese fought for control
General Douglas MacArthur in command of Allied Forces

Spring 1942 - Allies began turning the tide against the Japanese
-April 18 - raid on Tokyo and other cities
-Lieutenant Colonel James Doolittle - led 16 bombers in the attack - Pearl Harbor style attack against the Japanese Battle of the Coral Sea May 1942 - American and Australian troops stopped the Japanese drive toward Australia in the 5-day battle

Fighting was done by airplanes that launched from aircraft carriers.

First time a Japanese invasion had been stopped and turned back Battle of Midway Midway Island - strategic island which lies northwest of Hawaii.

Allies succeeded in stopping Japanese again.
Americans had broke their code and knew their target

Admiral Chester Nimitz defended the island
-June 3, 1942 - scout planes found the Japanese fleet
-Sent torpedo planes and dive bombers - attacked the Japanese before they could retaliate
Japanese lost 4 aircraft carriers, a cruiser, 250 planes Midway Japanese said the Americans had "avenged Pearl Harbor."

Allies began "island hopping" - taking control island by island, moving closer to Japan. Japanese Defense Allied offensive began August 1942

October 1944 - 178,000 Allied troops and 738 ships converged on Leyte Island in the Philippines - Led by General MacArthur
-Japanese put their entire fleet into the Battle of Leyte Gulf
-tested a new tactic - kamikaze - suicide-plane, pilots crashed their bomb-laden planes into Allied ships (sunk 16 ships, damaged 80)

Battle of Leyte Gulf was a disaster for the Japanese
-3 days of battle, lost 3 battleships, 4 aircraft carriers, 13 cruisers, 500 planes Iwo Jima Iwo Jima - "sulfur island" - critical to the U.S. as a base
-perhaps the most defended spot on earth
-more than 6,000 marines died taking the island
-20,700 Japanese on the island, only 200 survived Battle of Okinawa April 1945 - U.S. Marines invade Okinawa
-Japanese sent 1,900 kamikazes, sunk 30 ships, damaged 300 ships, killed 5,000 seamen
On land 7,600 Americans died - Japanese lost 110,000

Okinawa foreshadowed what the attack on Japan's home island would be like.
-Churchill predicted that it would cost a million American lives and half that number of British lives Manhattan Project Led by General Leslie Groves & American scientist J. Robert Oppenheimer
-best kept secret of the war
-600,000 involved, but few knew ultimate purpose
-Truman didn't even know about it until he became President

First test of bomb - July 16, 1945 - Alamogordo, New Mexico
-blinding flash visible 180 miles away
-deafening roar as shock wave rolled across desert
-mushroom cloud Atomic Bomb - Japan Damage of A-bomb Yalta Conference February 1945 - FDR, Churchill and Stalin met in city of Yalta in Soviet Union
-8 days the leaders discussed the fate of Germany
-Stalin wanted harsh approach - wanted to keep Germany divided
-Churchill strongly disagreed
-FDR acted as mediator to gain support of Soviet Union
~wanted Soviet Union to help in Pacific
~wanted Stalin's support for organization United Nations Yalta Outcome Series of compromises
-temporary division of Germany into 4 parts - one for the Americans, British, Soviets and French
-Stalin agreed to join in war against Japan
-Stalin also agreed to participate in an international conference in San Francisco Nuremberg War Trials Death camps led to the Allies putting 24 surviving Nazi leaders on trial for crimes against humanity, crimes against peace and war crimes.
Trials held in German town of Nuremberg

Those on trial included Hitler's most trusted party officials, government ministers, military leaders and powerful industrialists.

12 of the 24 sentenced to death, most of the remaining were sent to prison.
Later trials would find some 200 more Nazis guilty of war crimes.

"I was only following orders." Were the trials enough? Crimes against peace - planning and waging an aggressive war

War crimes - acts against the customs of warfare, such as the killing of hostages and prisoners, the plundering of private property, and the destruction of towns and cities

Crimes against humanity - the murder, extermination, deportation, or enslavement of civilians Occupation of Japan U.S. occupied Japan under direction of General Douglas MacArthur.

1,100+ Japanese put on trial - seven (including Hideki Tojo) were sentenced to death.

U.S. occupied Japan for 7 years
-reshaped their economy - introduced free-market practices that led to economic recovery
-established some democratic principles - new constitution known as the MacArthur Constitution Opportunity and Adjustment WWII was a time of opportunity for millions of Americans
-lots of jobs
-money to spend
-nation emerged as the dominant economic and military power Economic Gains -Unemployment fell to 1.2%
-Average weekly pay rose 10%
-Able to save money for the future
-Farmers had successful crops and benefited from improved equipment and fertilizers - most paid off their mortgages
-6 million women entered work force Population Shifts War triggered one of the greatest mass migrations in U.S. history.

California, for example, saw over a million newcomers.

Defense industry towns doubled or tripled in population.

Many African-Americans went north. Social Adjustments Fathers were in the armed forces, so mothers raised the children alone.
-young children left with neighbors or relatives or child-care while the mothers went to work
-teenagers often drifted to juvenile delinquency
Before many soldiers and sailors left they rushed to marry, upon returning most families had to readjust to each other. Civil Rights Protests James Farmer - civil rights leader - 1942 founded interracial organization
Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) - to confront urban segregation in the North and started its first sit-ins at a segregated Chicago restaurant

1943 - lots of racial violence - worst conflict was in Detroit
Riot lasted 3 days that resulted in 9 whites and 25 blacks dead or fatally injured Tension in Los Angeles 1943 - Los Angeles exploded with anti-Mexican "zoot-suit" riots
-started when 11 sailors reported they were attacked by zoot-suit-wearing Mexican Americans
-riots and fighting lasted for a week Japanese American Internment Pearl Harbor caused fear which caused prejudice against Japanese Americans.
-Early 1942 - War Department called for mass evacuation of all Japanese Americans from Hawaii - 37% of people - order refused because it would destroy their economy
-Eventually forced internment (confinement) of 1,444 Japanese Americans
-February 19, 1942 - FDR signed order of removal of people of Japanese ancestry from California and parts of Washington, Oregon and Arizona - 110,000 rounded up and sent to "relocation centers" Japanese Internment Specific charges were never filed against the Japanese Americans and no evidence of subversion (undermine the power or authority) found.
-Families had to sell their homes, businesses and belongings for less than true value

Japanese Americans fought for justice in courts and in Congress
Korematsu v. United States - internment was justified based on "military necessity" JACL Japanese American Citizens League (JACL) - pushed for government compensation to those sent to camps

1965 - Congress authorized $38 million for that purpose

1990 - checks sent for $20,000 to every Japanese American sent to a relocation camp with a letter from President George Bush
"We can never fully right the wrongs of the past. But we can take a clear stand for justice and recognize that serious injustices were done to Japanese Americans during World War II." In response to German attacks, cargo ships organized convoys - groups of ships that traveled together for mutual protection - escorted by destroyers equipped with sonar.
Airplanes would accompany the convoys as well and used radar to spot the U-boats on the ocean's surface

1943 - Admiral Karl Doenitz - commander of U-boat offensive his losses were at an "unbearable height"

Mid 1943 - Battle of the Atlantic had turned to the Allies benefit. Battle of the Atlantic -End September 1942 controlled 9/10 of the city - then winter hit
-Soviets used the winter to bring in more tanks and start a counter attack
- surrounding the city and trapping the Germans-January 31, 1943
- German commander surrenders Battle of Stalingrad Battle of the Bulge lasted a month - by the end Germans were pushed back and Germans had lost:
-120,000 troops
-600 tanks and assault guns
-1,600 planes
-Couldn't replace the soldiers and weapons and were forced to retreat. Battle of the Bulge GI Bill of Rights - Servicemen's Readjustment Act - 1944
-provided education and training for veterans
-federal loan guarantees to veterans buying homes or farms or starting new businesses Social Adjustments Truman now faced the decision of whether or not the Allies should use the bomb to end the war.

-He did NOT hesitate Hiroshima Nagasaki Hiroshima - Before After Hiroshima
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