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Transcript of APUSH 1.2
"European overseas expansion resulted in the COlumbian Exchange"
Vikings, in 1000, were the first Europeans to discover America, attempts to colonize failed
Columbus, did he "discover" America?
1492 Columbus sailed the ocean blue...
forcing them to mine for gold and silver
led to European greed
within 30 yrs 2 major civilizations crumble
Columbian exchange connects 2 hemispheres
1.2 I "The arrival of Europeans in the Western Hemisphere on the 15th and 16th centuries triggerred extensive demographic and social changes on both sides of the Atlantic"
What were the positives and negatives of the Columbian Exchange on both hemispheres?
Pushes of Europeans to "discover" America
-desire for Asian goods
-Portugal: route to India, China, Spice Isles
-Vasco de Gama, 1498, route around Africa to India
-Spain: seeks route "go west" to Asia, 3 G's
Treaty of Tordesillas-agreement between Portugal and Spain which declared that newly discovered lands to the west of an imaginary line in the Atlantic Ocean would belong to Spain and newly discovered lands to the east of the line would belong to Portugal.
Columbus-1st documented Euro to reach America
4 voyages from 1492-1502
What do most Americans know about Columbus?
Spain's New World Conquest and Empire
Spain became the wealthiest and most powerful for a period of time
Cycle of Conquest->explorers->conquistadores->missionaries->permanent settlers->European Colonial Empire
What was it? The exchange of plants, animals, culture, humans, diseases, etc. between the Americas, Europe and Africa
Am -> Europe and Africa-potatoes, maize, tomatoes
Europe->Americas-wheat, rice, horses, chickens, oxen
-massive population growth in Europe and Asia, increase in slavery, spread of diseases (smallpox), social classes (mestizos), horse transformed Native life (hunting easier), encomienda system
Spanish colonies used Indian labor to support plantation based agriculture and extract precious metals (gradually replaced by African slaves)
What did it do?
Royal grants of land given from the crown to Spaniards, in return, they promised to Christianize natives living on the land
Natives treated harsh, manual labor
Downfall of the System
Catholics protested treatment of Natives, Bartolome de Las Casas
Mestizos, combined European and Indian decent, could not be forced to work in the ecomienda system.
Less pure bred Natives and an increase in mestizos led to a decrease in the number of laborers
European powers in North America in 1600
Spain-Santa Fe 1610
England's Imperial Stirrings
religious conflicts, seizing Spanish treasure ships (Sir Francis Drake), raiding Spanish settlements
Est Roanoke Island, 1585, "lost colony" (failure at colonization)
England's defeat of the Spanish Armada-beginning of Spain's downfall and led to England's title of "master of the oceans"
England on the Eve of Empire
social and economic change
increase in population
desire for adventure, markets and religious freedom
creation of modern corporation-
joint stock co.
, chance for investors to pool their $ together
1606 Virginia Co received a charter for settlement in the New World, promise of gold and desire to find a NW passage
1607- 3 ships landed near Chesapeake Bay, chose site on banks of James River, easy to defend but unhealthy location
Justifying treatment of the Natives
-viewed as savages because they did not know them
-Sepulveda advocated harsh treatment and slavery in the name of Christianity
Euro believed in white superiority, easier to treat them that way when you de-humanize them
Spanish focus was to convert them, built missions outposts for this and military purposes
Juan de Onate- defeated Pueblos to help est Santa Fe
Spanish gov and priest suppressed any Native
practices that were inconsistent with
Replaced w/ African slaves who were more immune to Euro diseases, they also preserved own culture (music, religion, stories) and autonomy by combining elements of Christianity with their own culture
African Slave Trade
Used to work new newly established sugar plantations
Slaves still attempted to resist slavery, run away, sabotaged work
Claims in the New World
Asiento system used by Spanish to
bring slaves to the Americas, pay tax
to the king for each slave
French-slow to develop colonies, explorerd N Am east coast, NY, Mississippi River, St. Lawrence River, 1608 Quebec 1st settlement
developed good relations w/ Natives
Dutch-Hudson River, est New Amsterdam (NY)
Spain settlements-Florida, NM, Texas and Cali
1542, de Las Casas helped end Indian slavery
to a degree
Changes in Europe in the 1500s
Improvements in technology
Religious Conflicts- division between the Catholics and Protestants in the early 1500s led to each wanting to spread their version of Christianity
: break up of empires and replaced w/ countries in which the majority of people shared both a common culture and common loyalty toward the gov.