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Thai and Burmese art

ARTHST2 report
by

Bea Mercado

on 11 March 2013

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Transcript of Thai and Burmese art

Visual Art, Architecture,
Music&Dance Music and Dance The Ten Division
Craftsmen Thai Art Burmese art Music of Burma Dance of Thailand Dance of Burma Music of Thailand Bagan Empire Mandalay Palace Shwedagon Paya Architecture Myanmar's architecture began with the
Bagan Empire. They took over the Mon
Empire to their south and imported their
artisans. This led to the growth of the Bagan Empire.
This city contains thousands of temples;
most of these temples were originally built as palaces
for the kings. This led to an odd architecture which
required that a building could be used as a palace,
then after the king's death as a Buddhist temple.
Nearly all of these palace-temples were built
with brick and plaster and many remain
standing today, although many are
slowly collapsing.

The style moved to other cities
beginning in the 1200s, including
Mandalay and Yangon, however these
cities primarily built in wood. Despite
this, the most important and significant
stupas in these cities have been well
maintained by the people and
survive today in great
numbers. Since the 1200s few great architectural
changes have occurred. It wasn't until the
Europeans arrived in the1500s to the 1800s
in increasing numbers that modern building
techniques and materials were introduced to the
region. Since this time a large number of
buildings have been constructed, most notably
in the large cities of Yangon and Mandalay,
the latter of which has a distinct Chinese
flair in its newer architecture due to
heavy Chinese influence and
investment. The music of Thailand reflects its
geographic position at the intersection
of China and India, and reflects trade routes
that have historically include Persia, Africa,
Greece and Rome. Thai musical instruments
are varied and reflect ancient influence from
far afield - including the klong thap and
khim (Persian origin), the jakhe
(Indianorigin), the klong jin
(Chinese origin), and the klong
kaek (Indonesian origin). (Thai: Ram thai) is the main dramatic
art form of Thailand. Thai dance, like
many forms of traditional Asian dance,
can be divided into two major categories
that correspond roughly to the high art
(classical dance) and low art (folk
dance) distinction. The origins of Burmese Dance are traced
to the Pyu, Halin, and Mon cultures in the
central and lower Irrawaddy regions from
at least two centuries before the Christian era.
Archaeological evidence shows Indian influences
already in this. There were also influences from
Thai and Khmer cultures during the many
invasions and counter- invasions that
occurred over the next two
millennia. Traditional music from Burma is
melodious, generally without harmony, and
usually in 4/4 time (na-yi-se) or 2/4 (wa-let-se)
or 8/16 (wa-let-a-myan).
There are "the segments combined into patterns,
combined into verses, combined into songs that
make Burmese music a multileveled hierarchical
system.
The Burmese musician manipulates the various
levels of the hierarchy to create the song. Art in Thailand from 1st to 6th
centuries and up to 8th century in South
Thailand was dominated by India. This included
art made in India and imported, works copied in
Thailand and other Thai made art which styled
Indian concepts of form and subject matter. Thai art
is primarily composed of Buddhist art.
The old catchphrase, “chang sip mu”, or “ten
division craftsmen”, is a phrase whose original
usage was the name of a government
department compromising craftsmen
assigned to ten departmental
divisions. Burmese art evolved from the various ethnic
groups in the ancient Burmese kingdom of Pagan.
The Burmese, Mon, Arakan, Tai-yai kingdoms
developed Buddhist art during their respective reigns.
All these groups had an influence on Thai art.
Its pagodas boast elaborate friezes, wall paintings,
and sculptures. Local art forms, such as marionette
theater and kalaga making, are internationally
renowned. END OF PRESENTATION Thai and Burmese Photos of Bagan temples From the 800s until the 1200s Bagan was the
center of the country in numerous fields, including architecture and all of the country's greatest
monuments, both past and present are in the city.
This includes the "library," (mid-1000s) which
became a model for most later buildings, and the
stupas (funerary monuments) here, which altered
the traditional stupa style in the region and
includes the Ananda Temple (1090). In the late 1200s the city of Bagan was abandoned due to the country being overrun by the Mongols; leaving the
city in ruins, but its influence continued
on in other buildings, although few great structures were erected from the
late 1200s. Shwedagon Paya
Temple Classical Music Thai classical music is synonymous with those stylized court ensembles and repertoires that emerged in its present form within the royal centers of Central Thailand some 800 years ago. These ensembles, while being deeply influenced by Khmer and even older practices and repertoires from India, are today uniquely Thai expressions. Piphat Piphat can be performed in
either a loud outdoor style using
hard mallets or in an indoor style using
padded hammers. There are several types
of piphat ensembles ranging in size and
orchestration, each kind typically being
associated with specific ceremonial
purposes. Khrueang Sai The Khrueang Sai orchestra
combines some of the percussion of wind
instruments of the piphat with an expanded
string section including the saw duang (a high
pitched two-string bowed lute), the lower pitched
saw u (bowed lute) and the three-string jakhe (a
plucked zither). In addition to these instruments
are the khlui (vertical fipple flute) in several
sizes and ranges, a goblet drum (thon-
rammana) and, occasionally, a small
hammered Chinese dulcimer (khim). Mahori The third major Thai classical ensemble is the
Mahori, traditionally played by women in the courts
of both Central Thailand and Cambodia. Historically,
the ensemble included smaller instruments more
appropriate, it was thought, to the build of female
performers. Today the ensemble employs regular sized
instruments—a combination of instruments from both
the Khruang Sai and Piphat ensembles but excluding the
loud and rather shrill oboe pi. The ensemble, which is
performed in three sizes—small, medium and
large—includes the three-string saw sam sai
fiddle, a delicate-sounding, middle-range
bowed lute with silk strings. Traditional or folk Luk thung Luk thung, or Thai country
music, developed in the mid-20th
century to reflect daily trials and
tribulations of rural Thais. Mor Lam Mor lam is the dominant folk
music of Thailand's north-eastern
Isan region, which has a mainly Lao
population. It has much in common with
luk thung, such as its focus on the life of
the rural poor. It is characterized by
rapid-fire, rhythmic vocals and a funk
feel to the percussion. The lead singer,
also called a mor lam, is most
often accompanied by the
khaen, also known
as khene. Kantrum The people of Isan are also known
for kantrum, which is much less famous
than mor lam. Kantrum is played by Khmer
living near the border with Cambodia. It is
a swift and very traditional dance music. In
its purest form, cho-kantrum, singers,
percussion and tro (a type of fiddle)
dominate the sound. Classical Music Burmese classical music ensembles can be divided into
outdoor and indoor ensembles. The outdoor musical
ensemble is the sidaw, which was an outdoor ensembles
in royal courts used to mark important ceremonial
functions like the royal ploughing ceremony.

It consists of a hnegyi, a large double reed pipe and sidaw,
a pair of ceremonial drums, as well as the si and wa , a
bell and clapper and the gandama, a double-headed drum. Folk traditions A distinct form called the byaw, is often played at religious festivals
and is sung to the beat of a long and thin drum, with occasional
interruptions by the beating of a larger drum.
The traditional folk ensemble, typically used in the nat pwe, Burmese
theater and art, and festivals is called the hsaing waing. The ensemble
is made up of a series of drums and gongs, including the centerpieces,
which are the hne (double reed pipe) and pat waing or hsaing wan
(set of 21 tuned drums in a circle).
Other instruments in this ensemble include the kyi waing (small
bronze gongs in a circular frame) and maung hsaing (larger bronze
gongs in a rectangular frame), as well as the si and wa (bell and clapper)
and the recent addition of the chauk lone bat (a group of six drums
which have gained currency since the early 20th century). Mahagita Translated as "great
music" in Pali, the Mahagita
is an extensive collection of
Burmese classical songs called
thachin gyi.

Visual Art

* Drawing
* Engraving Sculpting
* Modeling
* Figuring
* Turning
* Plastering
* Molding
* Lacquering
* Beating Thai Painting •Traditional Thai paintings showed subjects in two dimensions without perspective.
•The size of each element in the picture reflected its degree
of importance.
•The most frequent narrative subjects for paintings were or
are: the Jataka stories, episodes from the life of the Buddha,
the Buddhist heavens and hells, and scenes of daily life.
• Traditional Thai paintings usually consist of book
illustrations, and painted ornamentation of buildings such
as palaces and temples.

•Most lacquer ware items have bases made from long, thin strips of bamboo coiled or woven into specific shapes.
•Lacquer can also be painted on wooden or metal objects
•A single piece of lacquer ware takes between six months and two years to produce, depending on its quality
•Even after the final layers of lacquer are applied, the bowl remains so flexible that its sides, when pressed together, can bend without cracking. Objects of Lacquer Kalaga •Lengths of kalaga, or richly embroidered cloth, were
traditionally used as portable curtains by monks,
royalty, and rich people.
•The art of kalaga making declined rapidly after the
British took over Myanmar and abolished the
monarchy. Gold Leaf
•gold leaf is traditionally used to gild items - such as lacquerware, musical instruments, religious images, and manuscripts storage chests - for royal or religious use.
•Mandalay is the center of the gold leaf industry in Myanmar.
•Beaten until they are no thicker than a layer of paint, the gold sheets are cut into squares of about 2 inches (5 cm), sandwiched between sheets of special paper, and sold in bundles •The art of kalaga making was kept alive by marionette wear kalaga costumes Burmese classical drama, whose dancers and Types of Burmese dance *Bagan dance
*Bilu dance
*Kinnara and Kinnari's dances
*Mount Popa's guardian spirits dance
*Nat dance
*U Min Gyaw dance
*Oil lamp dance
*Ramayana dance
*U Shwe Yoe and Daw Moe dance
*Zat pwe duet dance
*Zawgyi dance 3 Classical dance drama Khon Dance is the most stylished form of Thai dance. It is performed by troupes of non-speaking dancers, the story being told by a chorus at the side of the stage. Lakhon features a wider range of stories than khon, including folk tales and Jataka stories. Dancers are usually female and perform as a group rather than representing individual characters. Fawn is another form of "folk-dance" accompanied by folk music of the region. The first Fawn originated from the northern region of Thailand, it was designed and taught by Chao Dararasami of Chiang Mai. Since then, a variety of "Fawn" came into practice, according to the music and style of each province, such as the Fawn-Lep () finger-nail dance from Chiang Mai, Fawn-Ngiew from Chiang Rai with the influence of Burmese music and costume. Folk dance Wai Khru is a ritualized form of dance meant to pay respect to, or homage to the khru or teacher. It is performed annually by Thai classical dance institutions as well as before Muay Thai matches. Ram Muay is the ritualized dance that takes place before Southeast Asian
kickboxing matches such as Muay Thai.
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