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Distance Decay and Friction of Distance

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on 31 October 2013

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Transcript of Distance Decay and Friction of Distance

Distance Decay and
Friction of Distance


by: Chris Davis

Definition
Interaction between two locations declines as the distance between them increases
ESRI: "a mathematical representation of the effect of distance on the accessibility of locations and the number of interactions between them, reflecting the notion that demand drops as distance increases.”
What's the point?
Provides a framework to study
Economic or Urban Geography
Human interaction
Genetic diversity in space
Criminology
Research Applications
Summary
Distance Decay provides a theoretical framework to study the effects of distance on interactions
Crime
Genetics
Economy
Communications
Transportation
Examples:
Like: Newton's theory of gravity

Level of interaction between a city and surrounding cities decreases as distance or friction of distance increases


Friction of Distance
Implies a higher cost of interaction that increases the effect of distance.
Criminology
Biology
Nekola and White 1999
Analyzed the similarity of biological communities in spruce-fir forests in North America
Found that trees and woody plants, along with wind-dispersed plants showed less distance decay
Herbaceous, heavy fruited, and less frequent species showed greater distance decay
Time-Space Compression:
Reduces the friction of distance through increased technology or communication

Ex) like building a bridge between two islands
Archaeology
Analysis of Prehistoric Trade Economy
Burglaries
Rengert et al 1999
Evaluate an analysis done by Van Koppen and De Keijser
Find that the assumptions made by these authors don't represent the individual variation that exists
Burglary Data
High degree of individual variation, indicative of other criminological theories
Serial Killers
Kent et al 2006 apply distance decay model to a pattern of killings to develop a predictive model for the offender's residence
Found that indirect-path (Manhattan Distance) metric applied to a negative exponential calibration model
Full transcript