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Ch. 16 Darwin's Theory of Evolution

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Sarah Diaz

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Transcript of Ch. 16 Darwin's Theory of Evolution

Ch. 16
Darwin's Theory of Evolution

16.1
Darwin's Voyage of Discovery

16.2
Ideas That Shaped Darwin's Thinking
Darwin was influenced by James Hutton and Charles Lyell who studied the changing Earth while he was growing up
16.3
Darwin Presents His Case
Darwin and Russel Wallace had the same thoughts on evolution and wrote almost the same things in essays without every meeting each other until a meting in 1858.
16.4
Evidence of Evolution
All of Darwin's theories and assumptions have been proven to be correct so far using different types of evidence.
Image by goodtextures: http://fav.me/d2he3r8
Darwin's Epic Journey
Darwin was invited on a voyage called
HMS Beagle
in 1831
Observations Aboard the Beagle
Observed different characteristics of the same species living in different habitats
Charles Darwin was a scientist in the 1800's
Grew up in a time of scientific controversy
Developed the theory of
Evolution
What was Charles Darwin's contribution to science?
He planned to
collect specimen
of plants and animals to compare and observe them
This trip led him to think of one of the most important ideas in science
What three patterns of biodiversity did Darwin note?
He developed the theory of
Evolution
which explains how modern organisms descended from common ancestors over long periods of time
Similar animals inhabited similar areas in different parts of the world
Species Vary Locally
Darwin noticed that different, but related, species usually occupied
different habitats within a local area
Species Vary Over Time

When Darwin studied older fossils, he noticed that some were
different
than modern animals and some were very
similar
Darwin had a question:
Why don't animals live in ideal locations for them?
The modern animals and its descendents inhabited the
same areas
even after long periods of time
Rhea - South America
VS.
Ostrich - Africa
Species Vary Globally
An Ancient, Changing Earth
What did Hutton and Lyell conclude about Earth's history?
Lamarck's Evolutionary Hypotheses
Suggested that organisms could also pass traits they gained during their lives to their offspring. He called these
Acquired Traits.
Artificial Selection
Because Mendel and Darwin were scientists at around the same time, Darwin didn't know how heredity and heritable variation worked yet.
Population Growth
Reasoned that if
humans kept populating, there wouldn't be enough space or food for everyone to survive.
Why were species so different even though they lived in the same area?
During Darwin's childhood, scientists didn't believe that earth was more than a few thousand years.
When Darwin began studying evolution and thinking of theories and explanations for change over time, geologists were finding evidence of Earth's actual age.
Hutton
and
Lyell

concluded that Earth was extremely older than suspected
and that Earth's continued to change with the same processes as in the past.
Hutton's Theory
Proposed that Earth's features were a result of natural occurrences such as molten lava, rain, ect.
Suggested that forces under Earth's layers could push them upward eventually becoming mountains.
Lyell's Principles
explained that the same patterns that change the Earth today are what have changed the Earth in the past.
Uniformitariansim

Proposed that the Earth was older than suggested.
How did Lamarck proposed that species evolve?
Jean Baptiste Lamarck also studied Evolution before Darwin
What was Malthus's view of population Growth?
How is inherited variation used in artificial selection?
Evolution by Natural Selection
Variation and Adaptation
: Some variations are better suited for the animal's environment than other animal's variations.
Common Descent
All living and extinct species come from common ancestors.
Under what conditions does natural selection occur?
What does Darwin's mechanism for evolution suggest about living and extinct species?
Suggested that organisms
changed
during their lives
by choosing which characteristics to use and which not to use
.
Was proven wrong by
August Weismann
who cut of the tails of mice for 20 generations to see if their children were born without tails
Believed that
war, famine and diseases
killed people, which allowed the population to stay reasonable.
Darwin
thought this
applied to animals as well
.
Human breeders choose the characteristics that are the most useful. These characteristics are natural traits that the animal already has.
Before Darwin, Scientists believed that natural selection was minor mutations.
Thanks to Darwin, we now know that natural variation provided raw materials fo evolution.
The next year Darwin published his full work on evolution entitled:
On the Origin of Species
.
The Struggle for Existence
: Animals must compete for necessities of live to survive.

Survival of the Fittest
: Animals with the best traits suited for their environment are the ones who most often survive and reproduce, passing their traits on to their offspring.
Natural Selection
: From generation to generation, populations continue to change because they become better adapted to their surrounding. Natural Selection is random.
Biogeography
Patterns of
distribution among fossils and living organisms show how animals today have come from common ancestors
.
The Age of Earth and Fossils
Fossils provide evidence of common descent because
we are able to compare the structures of organisms
that lived long ago with modern animals.
Testing Natural Selection
Scientists now observe and study evolution in labs and controlled outdoor environments to be able to track changes and prove theories and hypotheses of Evolution.
Genetics and Molecular Biology
Because DNA is so similar,
it provides evidence that organisms have a common ancestor.
Comparing Anatomy and Embryology
Homologous structures are parts of animals of different species that come from a common structure.
How does the geographic distribution of a species today relate to their evolutionary history?
How do fossils help to document the descent of modern species from ancient ancestors?
What do homologous structures and similarities in embryonic development suggest about the process of evolutionary change?
How can molecular biology be used to trace the process of evolution?
What does recent research on the Galapagos finches show about natural selection?
Closely related but Different
Distantly Related but similar
Over time
, homologous structures adapted to different environments for different purposes.

Vestigial Structures
: Are inherited and passed down to offspring but are not useful because they have lost their original function.
Analogous Structures
: have common structure but are used for different purposes.
Embryology
: Embryos develop in similar patterns and orders. Similar patterns of embryological development provide further evidence that organisms have descended from a common ancestor
The
Grants
tested Darwin's hypotheses and their data shows that natural selection takes place in wild finch populations frequently and sometimes rapidly.
http://www.darwins-theory-of-evolution.com/


http://anthro.palomar.edu/evolve/evolve_2.htm


Miller&Levine Biology
Sources
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