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Transcript of Invasive Species
Justin Medau Invasive Species Scotch Broom Scotch Broom Control Measures Control Measures Background Himalayan Blackberry English Ivy Exploring Botany Volunteer Work Beckers House Scientific Name: Cytisus scoparius
-Mature Height: 3-10 ft tall
-Bloom time: June
-Found: Forrest lands, roadsides,
pastures, fields, sunny or
Description: Perennial evergreen shrub that produces bright yellow pea-like flowers in late spring.The dark green stems are ribbed with numerous branches and few small leaves.There are other species of broom including French, Spanish and Portuguese
- Manual- Hand pull, hand hoe or dig out small plants; brush cutters, burning is effective to deplete the seed bank but must be repeated in two to four years.
- Chemical- Herbicides
- Biological Competition- Sow native plant species that have the potential to out-compete this shrub
- Biocontrol- The Scotch broom seed weevil,
twig miner, and the Gorse or broom tip moth. Biological Effects Background Control Measures Biological Effects Biological Effects Blackberry English Ivy Sean's Space incase you want to add stuff about wild life corridor Background Cultural Icon
Ivy has been recognized throughout history. The
mythology associated with English Ivy begins in ancient
Rome. Roman god Bacchus wore an ivy wreath. In
ancient Greece, ivy crowned successful athletes and poets.
Medieval Europe believed that ivy symbolized everlasting
life. During the Victorian era, ivy was put into bouquets
for fidelity. Today, ivy is used for medicinal purposes,
including skin restoration.
Introduced in 1797 to the United States and North America from Central Eurasia, including England, Ireland, the Mediterranean, and Western Europe, English ivy has had a rich history.
Upon its introduction to North America, English ivy was commonly used as a landscape plant, because it is ornamental. It is also inexpensive and easily pruned into any shape. English ivy has been used in topiaries also. Scotch broom is native to the British Isles as well as central and southern Europe.
Sotch broom is a highly aggressive non-native invasive weed species.
It was introduced into the U.S. during the 1800s as an ornamental and as packing material for cases of whiskey and beer from the British Isles, central and southern Europe. It is now considered a pest plant by many eastern and western states. Our group made a trip out to Boring Oregon where we met up with Bill to help weed out invasive species in his backyard.
We focused on an overrun patch of Himalayan blackberry with new shoots in excess of 20 ft.
Pants ripped, hands bleeding, tears welling, Becker finally gave us a tour of his property. -These invasive blackberry species out-compete native understory vegetation and prevent the establishment of native trees that require sun for germination such as Pacific Madrona, Douglas Fir and Western White Pine.
-Dense, impenetrable blackberry thickets can block access of larger wildlife to water
and other resources.
-Shallow root systems cause
erosion on banks. -This aggressive, rapid spreading plant can grow 3 feet in the first year.
-It can form dense impenetrable stands that degrade rangeland, prevent forest regeneration, and create fire hazards.
-It invades rapidly following logging, land clearing, and burning.
-It can form pure dense stands for miles along highway and country roads to crowd out native species and destroy wildlife habitat. Native Origin:
The Himalayan Blackberry, despite its name, comes from Europe.
It was introduced in 1885 by an American botanist who prized the plant for its abundant berries. By 1945, the plant had spread along the Pacific Coast and it is now
widespread in much of the province.
The fruit of the plant, the blackberry, is an obstacle in controlling the spread of the species, as people like the berries and want easy access to them. Sources Exploring Botany Rhytidiadelphus Triquetrus (also known as Electrified Cat's Tail Moss)
-Cat tail moss has an irregular appearance due to the irregularity of spreading. Often seen in the rich forest habitats in the boreal regions. Claytonia perfoliata (also known as miners lettuce)
-Native plant often blooms pink or white flowers and thrives best in cool damp conditions. Eurhynchium Oreganum Ranunculus repens (Creeping Buttercup)
-A flowering plant in the buttercup family native to Europe, Asia, and Northwestern Africa. -Becker's suggested state moss. Mainly terrestrial at humid lower elevations of coniferous forest forming mats on humus, tree trunks, rotten logs and rocks.
-Chemical: Hand cutting of canes followed by a highly targeted, cut-stump application of approved herbicides in the fall. Scientific Name: Rubus Discolor/Procerus
-Mature Height: 20+ ft
-Bloom time: June-August
-Flower: white/pinkish, 5 pedals
-Berry: Black in color when edible
-Found: Pastures, along waterways and roadways, ditches and vacant land http://www.pnwflowers.com/flower/cytisus-scoparius Scientific Name: Hedera helix
-Mature Height: 60+ feet into trees
-Bloom time: September-October
-Flower: Small greenish flower
-Berry: Clusters of black berries
-Found: Forrest understory climbing trees, cliffs, walls, and any other vertical and horizontal surfaces that let its roots attach. -English ivy aggressively spreads across the ground, forming a dense blanket that shades and kills native
-It also climbs up trunks and into trees, preventing sunlight from reaching the trees’ leaves.
-When there are no vertical surfaces present, English Ivy acts as a ground cover, suffocating any other plants trying to grow in its area.
-The weight of the vines makes a tree more likely to be toppled by storms.
-English ivy also hosts bacterial leaf scorch, a plant pathogen that spreads to native elms, oaks, and maples. http://www.insidebainbridge.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/IMG_3094.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/3b/Ivy_berries,_Ballymagorry,_May_2010.JPG http://i282.photobucket.com/albums/kk242/abigail184/animalhouse2.jpg http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-C4_BeqKsKo8/UAysh-KgjoI/AAAAAAAAAw8/pAXZ7bqEr8E/s1600/DSC_0760.jpg Manual and Mechanical: Vines growing as ground cover can be pulled up by hand, with some difficulty and should be bagged/burned to prevent re-rooting. Cover with weed-blocking fabric, mulch or another ground cover. Stems that have climbed into trees should be cut to separate the vine from its roots
The "Ivy Busters" and the "No Ivy League" go into different parks and forests to manually pull the ivy
· Chemical: The systemic herbicide triclopyr (e.g., Garlon) is absorbed into plant tissues and carried to the roots, effectively killing the entire plant in place.
· Biological control: There are no biological controls currently available for English ivy. http://greenseattle.org/images/invasive-photos/IMG-8823.JPG/image_preview http://www.fs.fed.us/ne/durham/4155/fire/Naushon13.jpg http://urbantreefrog.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/10/img_4165.jpg http://johnrakestraw.files.wordpress.com/2011/07/eastern-kingbird-2.jpg http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_6dWrARvFLx4/TBLs1sSXIHI/AAAAAAAABa0/WvcImBVe3oU/s1600/blackberry+1.JPG http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-Qk6dKqlsKmw/TvwFMqIZ7FI/AAAAAAAAAm0/dglQtjef2ds/s1600/IMG_1682.JPG http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-rBBx8OPbRrk/TehT6sCGR7I/AAAAAAAAAko/N7IrnMRhjtQ/s1600/14_W_IMG_7577trim-800.jpg Photo by Andrina Hiemann Photos by Andrina Hiemann Photos by Andrina Hiemann http://www.oregon.gov/ODA/PLANT/PublishingImages/lg/maps/weed_armenianblackbery11_lg.jpg http://plants.usda.gov/maps/large/RU/RUAR9.png http://www.threatsummary.forestthreats.org/images/threats/Scotch_Broom_176.jpg http://www.plantright.org/images/ftp_broom_mcohen.jpg http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-8Sw69mIRYg0/T8vqpJaO6QI/AAAAAAAAJrc/LLZWZOPt9rI/s1600/IMG_4757.JPG http://www.kingcounty.gov/environment/animalsAndPlants/noxious-weeds/weed-identification/blackberry.aspx
http://extension.oregonstate.edu/catalog/pdf/em/em8894.pdf -Biolcontrol: In March of 2005 a rust was found severely impacting Armenian blackberry along a 100 mile stretch of the Oregon Coast. The rust has been confirmed as Phragmidium violaceum(Schultz) which has been used as a biocontrol agent for blackberry in parts of Australia, New Zealand and Chile. Goats can help manage new growth. -Manual: The first method consists of cutting the canes and then grubbing the roots. Resprouting is generally abundant, and many years of follow-up are necessary. Invasive, non-native plants are one of the biggest threats to our native ecosystems. Because of their aggressive growth and lack of natural enemies in our region, these species can be highly destructive, competitive, or difficult to control.
These invaders compete with native plants in many ways:
-Change the structure of the plant community
-Cause physical and chemical alterations of the soil
-Cover and shade native plants.
Invasive plants interfere with animal life, too.
-Alter the structure of their habitat
-Eliminate favored food plants through competition.
Invasive plants are spread both by human activity and by animals that eat them and carry their seeds.
Here are some of the species that we are battling in the Portland area: All images: http://www.squidoo.com/controlling-invasive-species-in-the-pacfic-northwest Himalayan Blackberry Purple Loosestrife Nutria American Bullfrog English Ivy Common Snapping Turtle Zebra Mussel Yellow Perch European Starling European Yellowjacket