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Introduction to the Mammals

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by

Shannon Williamson

on 3 March 2015

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Transcript of Introduction to the Mammals

Introduction to the Mammals
Evolution of Mammals
The first true mammals appeared during the alter Triassic Period, about 220 million years ago.
very small and resembled modern tree shrews
able to hide from dinosaurs
Form and Function in Mammals
What are some adaptations mammals have made to their environments?
Body Temperature control
Feeding
Respiration
Circulation
Excretion
Response
Movement
Reproduction
interrelationship of Organ Systems
interconnected for homeostasis
how can you relate systems together to maintain a homeostatic balance.
Mammallia
mammals are characterized by two features:
hair
mammary glands

In addition to having hair and the ability to nourish their young with milk, all mammals breath air, have four-chambered hearts, and are endothermic: they generate their body heat internally.
Body Temperature Control
Endotherms:
can generate heat internally
small animals have high metabolic rates
Subcutaneous fat:
a layer of fat cells located under the skin
The ability of mammals to regulate their body heat from within is an example of homeostasis(ex. sweating and panting)
Feeding
High metabolic rate means more intake of food
10x body weight
meat eaters, plant eaters, filter feeders
As mammals evolved, the form and function of their jaws and teeth became adapted to eat foods other than insects
Respiration
All mammals use lungs to breath
even those in water
diaphragm muscle
volume increase pulling air in
when diaphragm relaxes the volume decreases and sir is pushed out
Circulation
Response
Excretion
Movement
Reproduction
two completely separate loops
four-chambered heart
Highly developed kidneys
The kidneys of mammals help maintain homeostasis by filtering urea from the blood, as well as by excreting excess water or retaining needed water.
highly developed brains
cerebral cortex
highly developed senses
backbone
shoulder
pelvic girdles
internal fertilization
classification
maternal care
duration and intensity varies
Chemical controls: Hormones
regulate body activities
endocrine glands
Fighting disease: immune system
skin
Full transcript