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Copy of Spice Trade during the Commercial Revolution
Transcript of Copy of Spice Trade during the Commercial Revolution
Beginnings of Spice Trade
Europeans take over
Origins of Spice Trade
First Trade Routes
England was an immense threat to both the Dutch and Portuguese.
They were are naval power.
England's goal was to seize spice cargoes.
In 1780, England started a war with the Dutch over control of spice trade.
By 1800's, England had taken over everything that had belonged to the Portuguese and Dutch.
First record of spices were written by the Assyrians in 3000 BCE.
There is also Egyptian written records of spice trade with the Indonesian Spice Islands, or Moluccan Islands around 2400 BCE.
In the 7th and 8th centuries, many different spices were being traded.
Black pepper, cinnamon, and cloves were most popular.
Why are spices important?
The Arabians had the first monopoly of spice trade.
Trade occurred mostly in India.
They kept the locations where they got spices secret.
The only way Europeans could get spices were to get them on these trade routes, but prices were high.
Arabian Spice Trade Route
Vasco de Gama's voyage
Pepper was used to preserve and to flavor spoiled meat.
Black pepper was found in Asia, especially India.
There was a famous pepper called "grains of paradise", which was a great early example of a commercial marketing.
Things like balsam, an aromatic resin from a plant native to Arabia. Its sap was credited with marvelous healing properties but also with high spiritual powers.
Europeans hardly took showers at that time, so the perfume was really important to hide the bad smell.
Cloves and cinnamon were used as substitutes for cleanliness and ventilation. They were strewn across the floor to prevent foot odor from permeating the room.
the Casa da Índia (House of India) was the central organization that managed all Portuguese trade overseas under royal monopoly during the 15th and 16th centuries.
Cloves and Cinnamon
The Dutch began to feel pressure from the Portuguese.
Two explorers, Van Houtman and Van Neck made allies with the native people of the Malabar Coast.
Helped them gain monopoly over spice trade.
They formed the Dutch East Indian Company in 1602.
In 1498, Vasco de Gama landed in Calicut India, finding a route to India.
This discovery lead to a Portuguese monopoly of pepper trade.
At that time, pepper was worth more than gold.
Because the prices of pepper were so high, the Portuguese hijacked many ships. aka "illegal trading"
Other spices traded included cinnamon, cardamom, and cloves.
Spices were an important part of everyone's life. All social classes used it and it was very important for the European economy. Here are some important spices used in the 16th and 18th centuries.
Queen Elizabeth I