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TRADITIONAL AND SYSTEMATIC APPROACHES
Transcript of TRADITIONAL AND SYSTEMATIC APPROACHES
In this approach the superintendent of schools or any other school administrator makes the first move when he realizes the need for curriculum development and sets up machinery to make the needed revisions.
2. The Grass-Roots Approach
In its most comprehensive form, the grass-roots approach is community-wide. It embraces not only teachers but also students, parents and other members of the community.
3. The Demonstration Approach
The purpose of this approach is to introduce changes in regular program on a small scale
The Systematic Approach
TRADITIONAL AND SYSTEMATIC APPROACHES
The traditional approaches to curriculum change may be classified under categories: (1)
the administrative approach
the grass-roots approach
; and (3)
the demonstrate approach
He arranges for faculty meetings in which the need for curriculum improvement is presented. Then a steering committee is appointed consisting of administrative officers and teachers.
This committee formulates general plans, develops guiding principles and prepares a statement of general objectives covering the entire school system. These formulations become the curriculum development manual.
In addition, the steering committee works out plans for training teachers in curriculum work, determines the number and kinds of consultants to be employed and the kinds of activities best calculated to familiarize teachers with the theory and practice of curriculum building,
and provides for the setting up of “production committees”” consisting largely of teachers to prepare new course of study In keeping with the objectives and guiding principles laid down by the steering committee.
When the courses of study are completed, these are reviewed either by the steering committee or by a committee created especially for that purpose. Finally, the courses of study are tried out and installed.
It is based on certain general propositions. One such proposition is that if teachers share (or take part) in shaping the goals to be attained, in selecting, defining and solving the problems to be encountered and in judging and evaluating the results, their involvement in curriculum change will be most nearly assured.
The grass-roots procedure begins with individual schools in each neighborhood. Each school is encourage to work as a unit in the development of a new program.
Two types of Demonstration Approach
A. An experimental unit within a school
A separate faculty and administration are deliberately set up to operate the experimental project. The purpose of this separate unit is to develop new programs, methods, and materials in the hope that the whole school will be influenced by them.
B. There is no experimental faculty designated
The second form of this approach is the same as the first in purpose, but the lines separating the experimental project from the rest of the school are not as clearly drawn or not drawn at all.
There are scores of social and psychological forces playing upon the school with respect to educational program. Some of this forces tend to change the program, while others acting in the opposite direction, tend to keep the program as it is if not indeed to drive it to a lower level of efficiency. When the resultant of these forces is zero, the level of educational practice tends to remain about the same. This state of affairs in which the resultants of the opposing forces is zero, is referred to as social equilibrium.
The concept of social equilibrium is very useful in curriculum development. A change in curriculum can be made only by upsetting the old equilibrium and by establishing a new equilibrium at another level of educational practice.
In the words of Kurt Lewin, a successful change includes three aspects
1. Unfreezing the present level
2. Moving to the new level
3. Freezing group life on the new level
A method of systematic curriculum change based on the concept of social equilibrium can be reduced to four phases:
1. A diagnostic study of the school-community situation to ascertain the constellation of forces that maintain the present curriculum
2. The induction of change in the existing curriculum so as to loosen up the established constellation of forces.
3. The control of various forces in order to move the level of curriculum practice in the desired direction and to the desired amount.
4. The establishment of the new constellation of forces to sustain the new curriculum.
1. Feyereisen and her associates (1970)
- Suggest that curriculum should be conceptualized as a system
- set of components organized to a particular way to constrain action toward the accomplishment of the purposes
It implies organization and interaction between components, integration of all activities, mutual dependence between components and above all accomplishment of purpose
1. Formulation of a precise statement of objective
2. When the objectives have been satisfactorily stated, the next decision to be made involves the appropriate content to achieve the objectives
3. The determination of the activities which will present the material most effectively to the student.
4. Measurement and evaluation
Proposed four requirements in a systems approach to curriculum design:
2. Bushell and Rappaport
a systematic approach to school renewal, which implies curriculum change, require both a structure and a process.
- the structure or a system requires a network of communication links between
teachers and students
teachers and administrators
administrators and taxpayers
– a network which ideally, satisfies learning needs, conveys information, and helps pass bond issues.
1. Diagnosing the problem
2. Formulating objectives
3. Identifying constraints and needed resources
4. Selecting potential solutions
5. Evaluating alternatives
6. Implementing the selected alternative
The systematic change strategy formulated by Bushell and Rappaport
Definitions and Characteristics of the Community School
It is a school identified with, an intimately related to, the life of the community in which it is located.
The community school is a school that is totally oriented toward the improvement of democratic living in the community.
( Vitaliano Bernardino).
The community school is a school that integrates the education of the child with that of adult toward home and community betterment.
( Venancio Trinidad and Miguel Giffud).
A community school is one whose program is designed for useful and effective learning on the part of the children and one which helps to improve the quality of living in the community; one which serves the total population of the community and seeks to evolve the purposes out of the interests and needs of the people living in the community.
These community-centered schools attempt to eliminate as much as possible the barriers that used to exist between the classroom and actual life outside. They attempt to make the school part of the community and the community part of the school.
The characteristics of the community school in the Philippines are enumerated in Bulletin no. 17, series of 1950, of the Bureau of Public Schools. This bulletin lists five ‘viewpoints’ in relation to the community school as follows:
1. The school should operate as an educational center for adults.
2. The school utilizes community resources to invigorate the conventional programs.
3. The school should center its curriculum in a study of community structure, processes and problems.
4. The school should improve the community through participation in its activities.
5. The school should lead in coordinating the educative efforts of the community.
gives seven characteristics of the community school. He points out that unless a given school- whether it is elementary, secondary, collegiate, or an adult in nature- has most of these characteristics in a high degree and all of them in some degree; it has no right to be called a community school.
The seven characteristics
1. The community school improves the quality of living here and now.
2. The community school uses the community as a laboratory for living.
3. The community school makes the school plant a community center.
4. The community school organizes the curriculum around the fundamental processes and problems of living.
5. The community school leads in community coordination.
6. The community school includes lay people in school policy and program planning.
7. The community school practices and promotes democracy in all human relationships.
Bernardino (1958) states that the following appear to be outstanding characteristics of the Philippine community school:
1. It is concerned with the education of every child, youth, and adult, and the improvement of the community, all of which constitute one broad integrated program.
2. The aim of education is to make every child, youth and adult an efficient individual and member of a democratic community.
3. The setting of education is not only the school but the entire community.
4. The school plant and facilities are used not only for the instruction of pupils and students but also for that of out-of-school youth and adults.
5. The child and adult, the school and community mutually profit from the interaction of one with the other.
6. The curriculum makes maximum use of community resource, both human and natural.
7. Life needs, problems, and activities serve as the most important subject matter of teaching and learning.
8. School instruction as well as community education makes optimum use of native culture, customs, traditions, more, etc.
9. Knowledge, skills, and abilities are learned not in isolation from but in their application to actual activities of living.
10. Democratic principles and practices prevail in the teaching-learning situation, in school administration, and in all personal and social relations.
11. Cooperative group process is the method of social planning and action in the school and in the community.
12. The community is conceived not in terms of the immediate geographical environment but as an ever-expanding cycle of human society.
13. The school serves as a catalyze of the various government agencies and organizations concerned with community development and secures their cooperation and coordination.
14. Through the sponsorship and guidance of the school, the people of the community are organized for self-help.
The Curriculum of the Community School
The curriculum of the Philippines community school can be better understood in relation to definition of curriculum given and elaborated by the Educational Policies Commission of the National Education Association, regarded as one of the most authoritative educational bodies in the United States. Considered as a “new definition” at the same time it first appeared, it ran as follows :
The curriculum… consists of those experiences which the child has at the school or under its jurisdiction. Through these experiences, plus those outside the school program, the child grows and learns. The curriculum is not a simply a series of printed pages written in some central office for the information and guidance of teachers in the classroom.
Tupas and Bernardino
, in order that the curriculum of the community school may become its effective instrument in carrying out its functions and objectives the curriculum must be planned and develop in accordance with the peculiar nature of the community school, its setting, and the conditions and circumstances impinging upon it.
They offer several principles governing the planning and development of the community school curriculum:
(1) the primary function of the curriculum of the community school is to minister to the needs in the community;
(2) the life of the community must be the point of departure in all teaching
(3) the curriculum of the community school should train the individual for carrying on increasing levels of human relationships and group participation;
(4) the curriculum must provide for the discovery and utilization to the greatest extent possible of the resources of the community;
(5) the mores of the people of the community, their habits and ways of living, their interest their idiosyncrasies, even their failings should be duly considered in selecting, developing, and evaluating the knowledge, habits and attitudes to be taught.
(6) the characteristics of growth and development of Filipino children must be determined and used in grading and organizing the curriculum;
(7) the curriculum should be organized on a more functional basis;
(8) the local school people- teachers, principals, supervisors, and superintendents- must be given increasing latitude and freedom in developing the curriculum; (9) in every phase of the curriculum and at every stage of its development, the ideals of democracy must be preserved ; and (10) curriculum development should be a group enterprise in which many people make a contribution.
Traditional and Systematic Approaches
& The Community School Approach
Angel M. Rosuelo
traditional and systematic approaches