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Complete guide to TENSES

Past Present Future: Simple/Continuous/Perfect/Perfect Continuous
by

Yasin Abay

on 16 September 2013

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Transcript of Complete guide to TENSES

Present
Future
Past
Present Simple
Present Continuous
Present Perfect
Present Perfect Continuous
Past Simple
Past Continuous
Past Perfect
Past Perfect Continuous
Present Simple
What it looks like
I
work
you work
he/she/it work
s
we

work
you work
they work
When it is used
- information that is true
(The sun sets in the west)
- action that happens often
(Tony goes to school everyday)
- opinions/likes/feelings
(Rashika likes to play soccer)
- permanent situation
(Tracy lives in Sydney)
Signal words
every day
usually
never
in the morning
once
twice
always
sometimes
Present Continuous
What it looks like
I
am

work
ing
you
are
working
he/she/it
is
working
we are working
you are working
they are working
When it is used
- something is happening
right now (We are watching TV)
- an action is happening during a period that includes right now (I'm driving the car this week)
- an activity that always happens & we feel something towards it (Monika is always screaming)
- a planned action that will happen in close future (We are meeting Narwee kids this evening)
Signal words
right now
at the moment
at present
nowadays
today
still
always
Present Perfect
What it looks like
I
have

work
ed
you have worked
he/she/it
has
worked
we have worked
you have worked
they have worked
When it is used
- something happened or has been done in the past and still continues or still has an effect on the present.
- unknown time before now (I have lived in Sydney since 1990)
- change over time (You have gown since the last time we talked)
- accomplishments.personal experience (I have been to USA)
- many actions at different times (The army has attacked this city five times)
Signal words
just
recently
yet
since [2011]
already
never
ever
so far
for
lately
Present Perfect Continuous
What it looks like
I
have been

work
ing
you have been working
he/she/it
has
been working
we have been working
you have been working
they have been working
When it is used
- something happened in the past and still continues (or has just finished).
- The focus is on the activity or on the duration.
(We have been waiting for over three hours) (maybe stopped waiting after 3 hrs or maybe they kept waiting..)
Signal words
for
all day
how long
since
Present
Future
Past
Present Simple
Present Continuous
Present Perfect
Present Perfect Continuous
Past Simple
Past Continuous
Past Perfect
Past Perfect Continuous
What it looks like
I
work
ed
you worked
he/she/it worked
we worked
you worked
they worked
When it is used
something happened in the past and has stopped
Signal words
yesterday
three weeks ago
last year
in the past
last night
in [1997]
What it looks like
I
was

work
ing
you
were
working
he/she/it was working
we were working
you were working
they were working
When it is used
- something was happening in the past.
- can be 2 actions that's happening at he same time in the past.
- Use "WHILE" to put
past simple
with
past continuous
to show that something interrupted the activity.
(
while I was eating
,
Sam watched TV
)
Signal words
when
at six
nine o'clock


while
Past Perfect
What it looks like
I
had

work
ed
you had worked
he/she/it had worked
we had worked
you had worked
they had worked
When it is used
2 actions:
something happened in the past (
past perfect
) before something else happened (
past simple
).
(Tommy had cleaned the house,

before Candice arrived.)
Signal words
before
already
for
since
yet
by the time
after
just
What it looks like
I
had been

work
ing
you had been working
he/she/it had been working
we had been working
you had been working
they had been working
When it is used
something happened in the past that happened BEFORE another action in the past BUT it continued on...then it eventually stopped
Signal words
when
before
Now
Now
Present
Future
Past
Present Simple
Present Continuous
Present Perfect
Present Perfect Continuous
Past Simple
Past Continuous
Past Perfect
Past Perfect Continuous
Future Simple
What it looks like
I
will

be

work
ing
you will be work
he/she/it will be working
we will be working
you will be working
they will be working
When it is used
something will happen in the future:
1) unplanned - *door rings (I will get it)
2) promised - *secret (I will never tell anyone)
3) unsure - (maybe I will visit Sydney
Now
TENSES
Jason likes cats
I wake up at 8 o'clock every morning
I am working
It is raining at the moment
I have bought a car recently
I have lived here since 1998
I have been working all day
Lavender has been running for three hours
Jason liked cats
I woke up at 8 o'clock this morning
I was working

(when Anunaya called me)
He had played football for a year,
before she started he started soccer.
I had been watching TV when my father came in
Past Simple
Past Continuous
Past Perfect Continuous
What it looks like
I
am going to be

work
ing
You
are

going to be
to working
he/she/it
is

going to be
working
we are going to be working
you are going to be working
they are going to be working
When it is used
something is going to happen in the future:
1) planned (I am going to visit Quan later)
2) prediction (everything is going to be ok)
3) Intention (This year I am going to do my HW)
Present Simple
I
study
English every day
Past Simple
Two years ago, I
studied
English in England
Present Continuous
I am
studying
English now

Past Continuous
I
was studying
English when you called

Present Perfect
I
have studied
English in several different countries
Past Perfect
I
had studied
a little English before I moved to the US

Present Perfect Continuous
I
have been studying
English for five years
Past Perfect Continuous
I
had been studying
English for five years when I moved to the US.
Future Simple - will
If you are having problems, I
will help
you to study English

Future Simple -
to be going to

I
am going to study
English next year
OVERVIEW
They will be walking to school tomorrow
They are going to be walking to school tomorrow
Future Continuous
Future Perfect
When it is used
- shows an action that will happen before another action or event in the future (or just before a certain time in the future)
(I will have received my test results by next week)
By Monday, I will have finished my test
I am going to have finished my test by Monday.
What it looks like
I
will have
work
ed
you will have worked
he/she/it will have worked
we will have worked
you will have worked
they will have worked
What it looks like
I
will have been
work
ing
you will have been working
he/she/it will have been working
we will have been working
you will have been working
they will have been working
When it is used
- talks about how long something has been happening for at that time in the future ( I will have been teaching for fifteen years by then)
HaoTian will have been studying for four hours by then.
HaoTian is going to have been studying for four hours by then.
Future Perfect Continuous
Future Simple
Future Continuous
Future Perfect
Future Perfect Continuous
S + V(ed)
S + was/were + V(ing)
S + had + V(ed)
S + had been + V(ing)
First action (watching TV - can still go on)
second action (father came in - maybe interrupted first action)
S + V(s or es)
Jason will like my cats
Jason is going to like my cats
S + is/am/are + V(ing)
S + have/has + V(ed)
S + have/has been + V(ing)
The Future Simple
What is going to happen tomorrow?
What does it look like?
I am going to help you
I will help you
What does it look like?
Negation
When do you use
WILL
?
Subject + (to be: am/are/is) + going to + Verb
If you want to say something is NOT going to happen in the future, you use:
In order to describe events in the future we can use the
Future Simple
.
The Future Simple has
two
forms:

Will
"I will help you with your homework"
Going to
"I am going to help you with your homework"


Now
We use the "will" to show that something is going to happen in the future BUT only when:

something is unplanned
making a promise
you are unsure about something
Unplanned
You can use the Simple Future - Will when you make a decision at the time you say it.

Example:
You are studying and the doorbell rings. You shout to your mother:
"I will get it"
Promise
You can use the Simple Future - Will when you make a promise to someone else or to yourself.

Example:
One of your best friends tells you a secret. You promise him/her:
"I will never tell anyone"
Unsure
You can use the Simple Future - Will when you are not sure about the future. Often used with "maybe", "perhaps", "I think ..."

Example:
You are talking to a friend about countries you want to visit. You say:
"Maybe I will visit Africa one day"
Future
Subject + will + Verb
I will work
You will work
He/she/it will work
We will work
You will work
They will work
Questions
If you want to ask if something will happen in the future, you use:
will + Subject + Verb?
Will
you work?
Negation
If you want to say something will NOT happen in the future, you use:
Subject + will + not + Verb
I
will not
work
You can also abbreviate (afkorten)
will + not
to
won't
I
won't
work
Forming the Future Simple WILL is really easy:
Now
Future
When do you use
GOING TO
?
We use the "going to" to show that something is going to happen in the future BUT only when:

you have planned/thought about something
you make a prediction
you have the intention to do something
Plan
You use "Future Simple - Going to" when you have thought about something and have started planning. The plan can still be flexible.


Example:
You have planned to meet your friend this afternoon. You say to your mother:
"I am going to meet/visit Brian this afternoon"
Prediction
You use "Future Simple - Going to" when you have an idea about what is going to happen. You, for example, have extra information.

Example:
Your friend thinks she has a bad grade for her English presentation, but you have heard the teacher talking about how well he/she did. You say:
"Everything is going to be alright"
Intention
You use the "Future Simple - Going to" when you have the intention of doing something.

Example:
It is New Year's Eve and you have decided you are going to work harder for school next year. You say to your father:
"(This year) I am going to do my homework more often"
The "Future Simple - Going to" looks as follows:
The form of
(to be)
depends on the "person" and can often be abbreviated (I am - I'm)
I
am going to
work
You
are going to
work
He/she/it
is going to
work
We
are going to
work
You
are going to
work
They
are going to
work
Questions
If you want to ask if something is going to happen, you use:
Subject + (to be: am/is/are) + not + going to + verb
I
am not going to
work
(to be: am/is/are) + Subject + going to + verb?
Am I going to
work?
If there is another "wh" word (why, when, where etc.) in the question, put it BEFORE will.
When
will you work?
also: I
'm going to
, you
're going to
he
's going to
, we
're going to
...
S + will + V
S + am/are/is + going to + V
What it looks like
I
will
work
you will work
he/she/it will work
we will work
you will work
they will work
What it looks like
I
am going to

work
You
are

going
to work
he/she/it
is

going to
work
we are going to work
you are going to work
they are going to work
When it is used
- something will happen in progress (continuously) in the future
(The train will be leaving the station at 9am)
S + will be + V(ing)
When it is used
- something will happen in progress (continuously) in the future
(The train is going to be leaving at 9am)
S + am/are/is + going to be + V(ing)
What it looks like
I
am going to have

work
ed
You
are

going to have
worked
he/she/it
is

going to have
worked
we are going to have worked
you are going to have worked
they are going to have worked
When it is used
- shows an action that will happen before another action or event in the future (or just before a certain time in the future)
(I am going to have studied by the time the test is given)
S + will have + V(ed)
S + am/are/is + going to have + V(ed)
S + will have been + V(ing)
When it is used
- talks about how long something has been happening for at that time in the future (I am going to have been teaching for fifteen years by then)

What it looks like
I
am going to have been

work
ing
You
are

going to have been
to working
he/she/it
is

going to have been
working
we are going to have been working
you are going to have been working
they are going to have been working
1st action
2nd action
1st action
2nd action
* Difference:
1)
Future Continuous
: begins in future and ends in future
2)
Future Perfect Continuous:
can begin ANYTIME! It can even begin in the past! Ending in the future.
Signal words
tomorrow
next week
tonight
in two days
soon
in a week
Signal words
this time tomorrow
next week
tonight
in three days
Signal words
by
by Monday
by then
by the time
Signal words
by then
by tomorrow
next year
by
S + am/are/is + going to have been + V(ing)
Future Simple
Future Continuous
Future Perfect
Future Perfect Continuous
Future Simple
Future Continuous
Future Perfect
Future Perfect Continuous
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