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Transcript of Writing (g)
What are you being asked to do?
Presenting an argument
If you are presenting an argument it follows that you need:
to have a point of view;
to be discussing something that someone might disagree with (it can be easiest to take something someone says that you disagree with as a starting pont);
to be addressing some sort of issue (as opposed to a topic).
The task is to convince a sceptical audience.
... but also to reflect on what you are finding out and to consider new possibilities
A Bit like a Court Case
You are presenting an argument to a more or less sceptical audience.
You need to be clear what your argument is.
You need to present a case based on evidence.
But as well as presenting evidence you need to explain the argument to the reader and tell them how it demonstrates your case.
What makes a convincing argument?
points in a logical order;
explanation of the argument to the reader;
quality of the evidence:
The writing process
If you are doing a piece of research there might be several arguments to make ...
What are the issues? What has been done before and why is the research worth doing? (this is the literature review)
What methods would be appropriate for your work?
Present your results and hopefully that they demonstrate something interesting or useful.
It isn't really enough to decide what you are going to write about- you need to decide on an issue to address. In other words a question to answer or a proposition to establish.
Suppose you were going to write about the use of a VLE in a school
What might the issue(s) be that you could discuss and about which you could come to a conclusion?
Best not to choose what are really just practical issues - focus on topics where there are different opinions and ways of looking at things. In the case of VLEs, practical issues like the cost of systems, their reliability or the need for staff training might be important but there might not be much to discuss about these.
Types of writing
Descriptive - describes the facts of a situation, your results, what other research has shown, others' arguments and so on.
These will probably be reporting what others have said in the literature (and need to be referenced).
The types of writing below should be your original ideas.
Critical - raising questions about the literature that you read, questioning the points made in the literature and discussing different points of view.
Reflective - reflecting on the possible significance of what you have observed or read.
Be careful with choice of words.
Think about exactly what what you want to say and make sure this is what you are saying.
The Every Child Matters report believes that ...
Piaget thinks that ...
The government believes ...
Sources of Literature ...
Library 'Discover' service
If you can't get the full text on-line you can use inter-library loan
Types of Literature
- research reports
- position papers
How to use the literature - remember to focus on the ideas
Be critical of literature that you read. This doesn't mean criticising in a negative way but you should show that you are able to think about and show some insight into the issues raised in the literature.
Compare and contrast different authors, identify differences in approach or in the ways in which they define issues and consider the significance of these differences.
What questions do authors leave unanswered?
How might the literature relate to your professional experiences?
(And why is it hard to read? - It might just be badly written.)
Some technical bits...
Structuring your writing
It is important to have a clear logical structure to your writing.
When planning your writing you might try using the outlining functions in Word, or a mind-mapping tool such as Mind42 (a web-based system) or Freemind (Freely downloadable software)
There are a number of videos on YouTube demonstrating Outlining, for example:
Mind42 and FreeMind at at:
Quotations (in my opinion)
Don't include many direct quotes as they break up the flow of what you are writing. Instead paraphrase what others say, still citing the source using the Harvard system.
Where you do include a quotation you need to explain how it is relevant and how it is related to your argument.
Don't leave the reader to draw their own conclusions.
Don't make your argument using other people's words.
avoid 'as Jones says ..... '
Writing in the third person
Traditionally academic writing has used an impersonal, third person style:
This report will argue that ...
I will argue that ...
This is probably less important these days, but you still need to be careful not to write anecdotally, confusing personal opinion with evidence.
Make sure you use the Harvard system consistently
Use the Library guide (Cite Them Right)
or use Zotero
Where you have the choice refer to hard copy versions of sources.
Paragraphs are important to help the reader follow the structure of your writing. Each should be about a clearly defined point.
Paragraphs typically begin with a topic sentence introducing the key point of the paragraph. Then there will be a number of supporting sentences which provide more detail. Paragraphs, especially longer ones, might finish with a concluding sentence that sums up the paragraph.
Don't refer to vague groups of people;
educationalists agree ...
teachers know that ...
Write about what particular people say, or argue and include accurate references.
Make sure your argument is based on clear evidence, avoiding
unsupported statements and generalisations.
Whenever you make a statement, ask yourself 'How do I know this?' - and explain this to the reader.
and avoid words like 'surely' or 'hopefully'
Try to use a simple straightforward writing style. In particular shorter sentences are often better.
It is best to use a maximum of two fonts - one for the headings, the other for the body text. A serif font is probably easier to read for body text.
Double space your work and leave wide margins to allow room for markers' comments.
Be careful with spelling and grammar.
E-books in the library
Creme, P. & Lea, M. (2008) Writing at University : a guide for students. 3rd ed. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.
Kirton, B. & McMillan, K. (2006) Just Write. London: Routledge Ltd.
Murray, N. & Hughes, G. (2008) Writing up your University Assignments and Research Projects. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.
Neville, C. (2008) How to improve your assignment results. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.
Chandler, D., (2003) Writing Academic Essays and Reports [on-line]: University of Wales, Aberystwyth: Available: http://www.aber.ac.uk/media/Modules/writess.html Accessed: 14 September 2008
ATHERTON J S (2002) Academic Practice: Writing at Master's Level [On-line]: UK: Available: http://www.doceo.co.uk/academic/m_writing.htm Accessed: 14 September 2008
Redman, P. (2002) Good Essay Writing. London: Sage
Taylor, G., 1989, The Student's Writing Guide for the Arts and Social Sciences. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
You need to do some reasoning
It isn't just identifying facts, reasons and arguments.
You need to engage in reasoning Explain to the reader how the points you make lead to the conclusions you are trying to establish.
A connected series of statements to establish a proposition
Choose an issue or question where there might be different points of view that might depend on things like:
How different people view a problem.
Different moral or ethical viewpoints.
Different ways of explaining something.
These types of question will probably give you more to discuss and reflect on. For example in your groups you might think about the issues in the newspaper article.
Also can you possibly answer the question - "What is the effect on students learning of ..."
also not an argument
describing both sides of a 'balanced argument'
describing the pros and cons
reporting your opinion backed by evidence
They can all be used, but for different purposes
Speculation is ok - so long as it is clear that this is what is is.
If something is the case then what might the consequences be?
My work/research suggest something - what might the consequences of this be?
It's the ideas that matter
- as well as the need to present them clearly
Help from tutors
How much at different levels?
What sorts of things
How might this change