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Damaris Zayas Human Learning:
An Out of this World Experience Comparing Theories of Learning Types of Learning Transfer, Interference, and Overgeneralization Language Aptitude Inductive and Deductive Reasoning Intelligence and
Language Learning Learning Theories in Action "You must have a comprehensive knowledge of the entry behavior of a person, of objectives you wish to reach, of possible methods that follow from your understanding of the first two factors, and of an evaluation procedure" (2007,p 87). Gagne's eight types of learning from the
signal learning to problem solving and
how those types of learning apply in the second language learning. Transfer - the influence of learned information on new learning
positive transfer supports new learning
negative transfer hinders new learning Inductive Reasoning - any form of reasoning that moves from the particular examples to the generalization or rule. Intelligence Quotient (IQ) - research by Alfred Binet to measure linguistic and mathematical abilities Audiolingual Method Audiolingual Method Community Language Learning Community Language Learning Behavioristic Cognitive David Ausubel Constructivist Carl Rogers Discussion Questions Interference - type of negative transfer where known information disrupts new learning Overgeneralization - applying a rule or definition beyond its actual meaning or limits
Ex. Adding "-ed" to all verbs to show the past tense
walk -> walked (rule appropriately applied)
sit -> sitted (overgeneralization) Brown, H. D. (2007). Principles of language teaching and learning. 5th ed. White Plains, NY: Longman. References (Brown, 2007, p. 102-104) (Brown, 2007, p. 87-99) (Brown, 2007, p. 100-101) (Brown, 2007, p. 104-105) (Brown, 2007, p. 105-107) (Brown, 2007, p. 107-110) (Brown, 2007, p. 110-114) 1. Consider the factors of human learning discussed in Brown's Chapter 4. If you have learned a second language, what specific examples of transfer, interference, and overgeneralization have you experienced? If you work with students, how have you observed transfer, interference, and overgeneralization in their learning?
2. Brown notes, "that most effective language classrooms manifest bits and pieces of both [Audiolingual Method (ALM) and Community Language Learning (CLL)] of these contrasting methods. We are reminded of our need to be eclectically judicious in selecting tasks for our lessons" (2007, p. 114). What evidence of ALM and CLL have you experienced when learning a second language? How do you see yourself applying elements of these methods and other factors in human learning in your future classrooms?
Please use at least two of the important concepts listed to the right when answering the second discussion question. See video clip to the right... Johnson, D. [d0nwadej0hnson]. (2011, August 2). TESOL training inductive v deductive approach.wmv [Video file]. Retrieved from 1)Signal learning: human beings make general response of kind of behaviors.
2)Stimulus- response learning: learner learns phonetics of the new language through mistakes, trial and conditioning.
3)Chaining: learner makes connection between the phonetics array and syntactic patterns.
4)Verbal association: Difference between verbal and non verbal. Important Concepts classical conditioning
IQ (Intelligence Quotient)
EQ (Emotional Quotient)
Audiolingual Method (ALM)
Community Language Learning (CLL) Deductive Reasoning - any form of reasoning that moves from the generalization or rule to the particular examples. Inductive and Deductive Reasoning both work in the ESL classrooms; it depends on the goal and contexts of the class lesson. Transfer Positive (+) Overgeneralization
(L1 --> L1)
(L2 --> L2) Interference
(L1 --> L2)
(L2 --> L1) (Brown, 2007, p. 104) Multiple Intelligences - researched by Howard Gardner to account for diverse human mental abilities Linguistic Logical-mathematical
Interpersonal Intrapersonal Triarchic - researched by Robert Sternberg to determine insight for authentic problem solving Componential ability
Contextual ability Emotional Intelligence (EQ) - researched by Daniel Goleman looks at the way emotion influences mental processing There may be a relationship between language and varying forms of intelligences! Inspired by Rogers and Curran
Goal is to overcome potentially harmful affective factors
Establishes a supportive community for learning
Students sit in a circle; teacher sits on the outside of circle
Teacher acts as a counselor or guide to facilitate student learning
Conversation pattern: student speaks in native language; teacher translates; student repeats translation
Scaffold learning: teacher provides less information and translation as students increase their language skills
Inductive learning about new language
Disadvantages: learning a new language may require some deductive learning in the beginning; quality of the teacher's translations could affect language learning
Advantages: important reminder to establish a comfortable community environment for learning; encourages students to initiate language and to develop independence (Brown, 2007, p. 112-114) (Brown, 2007, p. 110-112) Negative (-) Four psychologists offer three definitions to how humans learn. Ivan Pavlov and B.F. Skinner Classical Behaviorism: Pavlov
-Association between stimuli and reflexive response
-Unconditioned Response (natural response)
-Conditioned Response (learned response)
- Response (elicited behavior) 1.Signal learning: learner makes general response to a signal.
2.Stimulus- response learning: learner connects between a stimulus and a response.
3.Chaining: learner makes many connections between a stimulus and a response.
4.Verbal association: learning chain, or stimulus-response connections, that are verbal. 5.Multiple discrimination: learner response differently to different stimulus.
6.Concept learning: learner able to respond and makes a relationship to the class of stimulus.
7.Principle learning: the relationship among concepts.
8.Problem solving: learner combines concept and principle learning together to come out with solutions. Operant Conditioning: Skinner
-Behavior operates on the environment
-Stimuli (Reinforcers) Follows respnse
-Operants- Classify responses elicited by the stimuli.
-Emitted -responses produced by the consequences.
Respondents- are identified by the stimuli. Types of Learning part 1 Types of Learning part 2 Physicist and Operant Conditioning g Skinner is referred to as a Neobehaviorist for adding behavioral psychology to learning. Types of Learning in the second language part 1 Types of Learning in the second language part 2 -Association of meaning to learning.
-"knowledge as a hierarchical structure" (p.91 ).
-Meaningful learning (Subsumption)- anchoring new material to existing structures.
Attrition (forgetting) is systematic (p. 96).
Rote vs. Meaningful Learning Humanistic Psychology
-"'Whole person'- physical and cognitive, but primarily emotional being" (p.97).
-Development of internal forces
-Feelings and reactions must be balanced.
- Nonthreatening environment.
-Establishment of interpersonal relationships.
-Individual confidence or empowerment. "Army Method"
-Oral activity- pronunciation
-No grammar or translation.
- 5)Multiple discrimination: it is important in second language acquisition. Learner could apply some rules from his or her first language to the second language. 6)Concept learning: learner is able to apply different types of linguistics in the new language.
7)Principle learning: is an extension of concept learning which is linguistics unified with the rote memory route in the total system.
8)Problem solving: learner will be able to connect between all different kinds of learning to correct and understand the meaning of words. 1. More dialog based learning.
3. Structured sequence
4. Repetitive drills
5. No grammatical explanations.
6. Limited vocabulary.
7.Use of tapes and visuals.
9.No use of native language.
10. Responses are reinforced.
11. Error- free responses
12. Disregard content. 1) The Modern Language Aptitude Test (MLAT) and The Professional and Linguistic Assessments Board (PLAB)
To tests measure foreign language learning aptitude. It was assumed that virtually anyone could learn a foreign language.
2) The Defense Language Aptitude Battery (DLAB):
It is for foreign language learning aptitude. It is usually required in the military or a Peace Corps volunteer.
Those tests measure a learner’s ability to perform the types of activities typical in the language classroom. •Ways in which a language aptitude test may be administered and interpreted. The best test measuring language aptitude is The Cognitive Ability for Novelty in Acquisition of Language - Foreign (CANAL-F). The advantage for this test is measuring how well a person can learn a second language.