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Greece and Rome
Transcript of Greece and Rome
Chapter 4, Section 1- Early People of the Aegean
The Island of Crete, located on the Aegean Sea, was home to a successful trading civilization of people known as the Minoans.
The Minoans lived in a rich society, with religious shrines and frescoes. By 1400 B.C., however, Minoan civilization vanished, most likely due to the invasion of the Mycenaeans, who adopted skills fomr the Minoans such as writing, and adopted traits of Mesopotamian and Egyptian cultures.
The Major thing that the Mycenaeans are known for is their part in the Trojan War, which began around 1250 B.C. between Mycenae and Troy.
Most likely this war was fought over an economic rivalry and who controlled the vital straights connecting the Mediterranean and Black Seas.
However, legend has made it a well-known story. The legend goes that a Prince from Troy named Paris fell in love and kidnapped Helen, a Mycenaean queen.
This sparked a war between the Mycenaeans and Trojans. Characters in this include the mighty legendary warrior, Achilles and Hector, the Trojan prince that is killed by Achilles.
Eventually, the Greeks pull the ultimate move of deception! Legend has it that the Greeks pretend to leave and end the fighting, leaving behind a piece of Greek art to the Trojans as a gift: A Giant Wooden Horse.
Inside were 30 Greek warriors who snuck out at night and opened the gate to let the Greek armies in. Troy was eventually burned to the ground.
These stories are best known in the tales of "The Odyssey" and "The Iliad". Both of these were told by the ancient poet Homer, who wandered from village to village telling these stories around 750 B.C.
These stories, true or not, reveal much about the values of the Greeks. They highly valued honor, courage and eloquence.
If I had to summarize this section in a few main ideas, they would be:
1: Crete is considered the cradle of early western civilization
2: Minoans were the first to develop
3: Mycenae developed next (known for the Trojan War)
4: Homer wrote the Iliad and Odyssey representing Greek morals and values
Section 2- The Rise of Greek City-States
Greece was often developed into separate city-states because they were isolated by natural barriers.
Each city-state had a polis consisting of a major city surrounded by by countryside. The acropolis, or high city, with its many temples, stood on a hill.
Different forms of government arose in Greece, from monarchy, to an aristocracy (rule by landholding elite), and eventually an oligarchy- or rule by a small wealthy elite that emerged due to high increases of trading.
In Sparta, there was a focus on the military over the arts and new ideas of government.
A tale of two Greek cities
Athens & Sparta
Typical Athenian Life
Fitness by Gymnasiums
Great Philosopher’s home
Drawing: observe natural beauty
Shopping Center: Agora
Inspected @ birth
Defective babies thrown away
Sent into wild @ 7
Lived in packs
Encouraged to steal
Punished if caught f/ being a bad thief
Moved to barracks @ 18-20
Lived w/ unit
Full citizen @ 30
Lived @ home
1 meal w/ unit
Retired @ 60
Main Goal: Superior Military
Hardened by nature
No Material Wealth
If I could summarize this section in a few main ideas, they would be...
1: Greek city-states developed using different types of governments
2: Sparta was militaristic, and stressed Sparta over the individual
3: Athens practiced democracy, and stressed individual rights
4: Forces for Unity: language, same heroes, common festivals and the same gods
Name three things that a Spartan boy has to go through before he is allowed to have a normal citizen life.
Section 3- Conflict in the Greek World
In 522 B.C., the Persians extended their empire to include the Greek city-states of Ionia in Asia Minor.
Many Greeks considered sympathizing with the Persian Empire, although the states in Ionia resisted Persian rule. Athens had been amongst those who were advocating for Greeks to unite and fight off the Persians. In 480 B.C., the Persians, under the god-king Xerxes, sent a massive army to move in to central Greece, where they were intercepted by a small Spartan force of 300...
They stood heroically against Xerxes at a narrow pass called Thermopolae, led by King Leonidas.
The Spartan stand, while fatal for those 300, allowed time for the Greeks to unite. The Persians moved past and burned Athens to the ground. However, the Athenians had already escaped...
The Greeks were able to lure the Persian navy into a narrow straight at Salamis, where they literally rammed the Persian fleet to it's destruction.
Athens led a Greek united force called the Delian League, and their victory against Persia added to their sense of uniqueness ( and favor of the gods) amongst other types of government.
What might make the Greeks believe they are "exceptional" or "unique"?
Following the Delian League and the Persian War victory, Athens was ushered into a "golden age" of Pericles and Direct Democracy....
Athens, under Pericles' leadership, was a direct democracy- meaning, citizens take part in day -to day activities and decision-making in the government. A council of 500, conducted business. Eventually, council members were paid a stipend, or fixed salary.
What changes would a stipend allow?
Now poor men were enabled to serve in government!
Also, Athenian citizens served on juries!
Often, juries were made up of hundreds or even thousands of jurors.
Athenians could also vote to ostracize, or banish those who were deemed a threat to democracy.
Eventually, this domination of Greek culture by Athens was resented by other Greeks. To counter the Athenian Delian League, Sparta and other enemies formed a counter-team, the Peloponnesian League.
Sparta's inland location prevented the use of the Athenian Navy, and Sparta's superior army only had to move north... eventually after brutal fighting, and the help of the Persian navy in 404 B.C., Athens was defeated. However, the Spartans did not destroy Athens. They removed their Empire and took their navy.
The Pelopponesian War ended Greek domination in the world.
If I had to summarize this section in a few main ideas, they would be...
1: Persian Wars were between the Persians and multiple Greek City-States (Greeks eventually win)
2: Age of Pericles was the golden age for Athens
3: Peloponnesian War (27 yrs) was between the
Delian League & Athens
Peloponnesian League & Sparta (WINNER)
Section 4- The Glory that was Greece
Some Greeks challenged the idea that everything was caused by the whims of the gods. Rather, they used observation and reason to find causes for events. Many of these people were called "philosophers" or "lovers of wisdom".
Many subjects were explored, from mathematics, music and morality to logic and reason.
Aristotle and the "Golden Mean"
Idealism in Art:
The Greeks had a belief in searching for the most beautiful or ideal form of things on earth.
Parthenon- temple for Athena
Tragedies and Comedies
Herodotus- early example of a historian, he traveled and gathered a collection of accounts of the Persian Wars before recording them down. He used the term "histories", a Greek word for "inquiries".
Another historian, Thucydides, wrote an account of the Peloponnesian War, and his focus was on avoiding bias, while Herodotus focused on the importance of research.
Why would Thucydides and his topic make him an expert at avoiding bias?
If I had to summarize this section in a few main ideas, they would be...
1: Greek Philosophers searched for why things happened using math and logic
2: Well known Greek Philosophers: Socrates, Plato, Aristotle
3: Architecture & Art focused on balance and order
4: Greek Literature (aka: epic poems) focused on drama, comedy, and history
Today's warmup- Get into a group of 3 to 4 (Seriously, THREE). I will assign your group to be an expert on one of the Philosophers (Socrates, Plato, Aristotle) from Chapter 4, Section 4 of your book. Once your group has taken notes and understands the basic ideas of your assigned philosopher, you will to to other groups who were assigned a different philosopher and make sure you have your activity filled out for all three.
Section 5- Alexander the Great, and the Hellenistic Age
Before you begin today's activity, let's hear what my dad has to say about Alexander the Great....
Alexander was from the mountain country known as Macedonia. His father, Philip II came to admire Greek culture, and after conquering Athens, hired Aristotle as a tutor for Alexander. He grew up with the dream to conquer the Persian Empire.
Even as a young 20 year old, Alexander does move through the Persian Empire. Though he had the personal goal of capturing Darius III, he moved from city to city and Empire to Empire.
Alexander founded many new cities and combined cultures, while spreading Greek culture, or Hellenistic Civilization.
Alexandria became the cultural capital of the Hellenistic world. Education, trade and even giving more power to women were among the many trademarks.
Pharos, a giant lighthouse.
A new philosophy, Stoicism, emerged during this time, preaching the idea of "It is what it is".
It also preached high moral standards, because although people aren't always equal, everyone can be a moral equal.
How does this compare to other world religious beliefs that we have learned about before?
Math and Astronomy grew with names like Pythagoras, Heliocentric theory, a round earth (accurately calculated circumference), Archimiedes (simple machines) and Hippocrates
If I could summarize this section in a few main ideas, they would be...
1: Empire of Alexander the Great included the Middle East, Asia Minor, Southeast Europe, and into India
2: Legacy of Alexander the Great was his policy of assimilation (spreading Greek culture)
3: Hellenistic Period is the spread of Greek culture BC 323 – 30 BC (following Alexander the Great’s death)
Warm-Up: Why did Plato and Aristotle fear Democracy?
Warm-Up: Based on your reading from yesterday, make 3 statements about Alexander the Great as evidence to whether or not he was really "great".
Chapter 5, Section 1- The Roman World Takes Shape
Major founding groups:
-Etruscans (Greek colonists from early city-states)
Latin villages would soon combine to form what would be known as Rome. It was said to be founded on 7 hills by the twins Romulus and Remus, twins and sons of the Roman war god Mars and a Latin woman. Legend has they were raised by wolves...
The Etruscan Ruler was driven out in 509 B.C., and a government formed in place of him called a republic.
What definition does your book give you of a republic?
The republic was structured so that a senate would govern. It was originally made of 300 members who were all patricians, or of the landholding class.
The Senate would elect 2 consuls every year (from the patrician class) to supervise and lead the military. They could only run for one terms.
In the event of war, the Senate could choose a dictator to lead the republic through the crisis.
The patrician class' privileges were envied by the plebeians (citizans who made most of the population, had citizens rights, but little power). This class was made of farmers, merchants and artisans.
Eventually, plebeians could elect their own tribunes, or officials, that could veto laws passed by the Senate.
-Roman women had a larger role than in Greek society (could own land and run businesses)
-Most children were literate (boys AND girls say whaaa??)
-Romans adopted Greek gods and renamed them.
The army was composed of citizen-soldiers who would make up units of around 5,000 men called a legion. Usually they brought their own gear and were not paid- their payment was usually in the "spoils" of victory.
What type of relationship could this create between roman generals and their legions?
Main Ideas, Ch5, Section 1:
1: The Roman Republic was located in present day Italy / Rome
2: Roman Republic Government Structure – 2 Consuls, Senate, and Tribune
3: Family was run by the Father, boys and girls were literate, and Romans used Greek Religion
Because of their widespread military activity, it was important to connect the republic with roads. Slowly Italy was beginning to unite.
Warm-Up: Compose a thesis statement if you were to write an essay that Alexander the Great WAS great.
Chapter 5, Section 2- From Republic to Empire
With all of the expansion of land, Rome is facing some major issues in keeping up their Empire that now expands around almost the entire Mediterranean.
It's first major problem- when Rome conquered the entire Italian Peninsula, it brought them into contact with Carthage. Following were three separate wars between the clashing Empires.
In the 1st Punic War, Rome won and gained the islands of Sicily, Corsica and Sardinia.
The second Punic war was a victory for Carthage, as the leader Hannibal led his army carried by elephants across the Alps into Italy, surprising the Romans and defeating them. However, the Romans eventually outflanked Hannibal and forced him to go back to Carthage before he could destroy Rome itself.
The third Punic War was a major defeat, where Rome went to Carthage itself and destroyed it. Survivors were sold into slavery, and salt was poured on the ground so that nothing would grow there again. Rome was officially the master of the Mediterranean.
Now, being the masters of the region,
Rome had committed to a policy of imperialism.
Eventually, Rome, through war and simple persuasion, made the entire area part of its empire.
Read page 157. What impact did this expansion of land have on Rome? What are latifundias?
Two young plebians attempted to make reforms. These reforms made them very popular among the lower classes and farmers, but angered the Senate. Both were killed by mob violence created by the Senators and their hired thugs.
What bigger implications do you think that these murders had on Roman politics?
Because Rome could no longer have stability in its politics, a series of civil wars erupted between the Senate that wanted things to stay as they were, and the popular politicians trying to create reforms.
Julius Caesar emerged as a stable leader, and kept his loyal army to march on Rome itself. After conquering all the rebellions around him ("veni, vidi, vici") he forced the Senate to make him a dictator. He kept the old government positions in place, but he was the absolute ruler of Rome.
Caesar's changes included increased citizenship to Romans outside of Italy, public works, and a 12 month calendar based off of the Egyptian one. The Senate did not like these changes and thought Julius was going to become the king of Rome, and "solved" the issue much like they had in the past...
Julius' murder sparks another civil war, after which finally the Senate crowns Octavian the title of Augustus, or "exalted one". He was careful to not use the word king, although his job was no different.
However, he brought a lot of stability. The 500 year-old republic was at an end, and the age of the Roman Empire had come. He ordered a census to have records of who should be taxed, had the same currency throughout the Empire, and put the jobless to work building roads and and farming.
This system worked well for 200 years, but left Romans with the question of who would succeed the throne? They did not believe in hereditary rule, and there was usually some violent power struggle after an emperor died.
This 200 year span from Augustus to Marcus Aurelius is known as Pax Romana, or "Roman Peace". Trade and the spreading of knowledge came easy throughout the Roman Empire.
Romans were kept entertained during this time with chariot races and gladiator fights.
Main Ideas, Chapter 5, Section 2:
1: Rome dominates Carthage in all 3 Punic Wars
2: Caesar becomes emperor (“I came, I saw, I conquered”), beginning of the Roman Empire
3: The Roman Empire had different types of leaders (some good, some bad)
4: The Pax Romana was a 200 year span considered the Golden Age of the Roman Empire
Section 3- The Roman Achievement
-Romans wrote satires of Roman society.
History- sought to create patriotism in the Roman Empire.
Art- a combination of realism and idealism.
-What is the difference between the two?
Architecture- Utilized concrete and the rounded dome.
Science- Engineering, aqueducts, and Ptolemy
Law- Rule of law, judges interpret law, and it applies to everyone (although penalties were different depending on social class).
Section 4- The Rise of Christianity
Describe what you already know about the foundations of Christianity:
Christianity became a popular belief, and although Rome tried to stomp it out by killing Christians, they simply became martyrs and encouraged believers.
Eventually, Emperor constantine, in A.D. 313, would embrace Christianity in his Edict of Milan, allowing for free worship among all Romans.
Eventually, Christianity became the state religion of Rome's religion. The organized church had services ran by clergy, and local churches would be presided over by a bishop. These bishops were ruled over by a patriarch.
Division would be caused when certain teachings would emerge that would disagree with the church, called heresies. The faith was later studied and taught about theology. Many of these scholars worked in the city of Alexandria (remember that???), including Augustine. He combined Christian doctrine with Greek and Roman learning, especially Plato.
Section 4 Main Ideas:
1: Roman Empire had many different religions
2: Jesus begins preaching, performing miracles, 12 Disciples, and was crucified
3: Christianity was spread by Peter and Paul
#4: Structuring the Clergy – Pope, Arch-Bishops, Bishops, Priests, and diocese (Christian community)
Section 5- The Long Decline
Use you book to brainstorm the causes of Roman decline:
What were the outside factors affecting Roman decline?
What were the Economic factors?
Main Ideas, Chapter 5 Section 5:
1: Roman Empire declines due to several reasons
2: Germanic Tribes and Huns attack (Rome falls)
3: Roman Empire falls due to military attacks, political turmoil, economic weakness, and social decay
What type of government did the early Romans have? How was it different from the government in ancient Athens?
Warm-Up: (Turn to page 159 for reference)
Complete the Section Activity for Section 2. Write down in your warm-up at least two major differences between government activity under the Roman Republic and under the Roman Empire.
Nero supposedly burned down a major part of Rome and tried to blame the Christians, resulting in a massive time of persecution.
Warm-Up (2 parts):
1. Which emperor allowed the Roman Empire to embrace Christianity?
2. When Rome eventually split, what was the Eastern half called?