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Muscleskeletal resource.

muscle contraction etc. closed book
by

tracey sinkinson

on 24 May 2016

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Transcript of Muscleskeletal resource.

Structure
Tendon:
S-Rope like connective tissue cords.
F- Attach Muscle to bone
Epimysium:
S - Tough connective tissue sheath surrounding the entire muscle belly.
F- Protects the entire muscle
Perimysium:
S- Connective tissue sheath surrounding fascicle.
F- Protects fascicle
Endomysium:
S - Delicate sheath surrounding each muscle fiber.
F - Protects muscle fiber
Fascia:
S- connective tissue with in the muscle.
F- Protective tissue for muscle.
Muscle Fiber:
S - Contains contractile proteins that enable movement or force.
F- Contracts to shorten
Structure
Motor point:
S- area where the nerve meets muscle fiber
Structure:
Sarcolemma:
Cell membrane of muscle
Function:
Determines what can enter and exit the muscle fiber

F - Stimulate muscle to cause contraction
What is sent by origin?
What is meant by insertion?

Origin is attached to the immovable or less movable bone.
Insertion is attachment site to the movable bone
Excitability:

Contractility:

Extensibility:

Elasticity:

Cardiac
Skeletal
Location
Attached to bones (skeleton)
Attach via tendons

Contraction
Voluntary
Rapid speed
Tire easily
Must rest after activity

Functions:
Mainly to Produce movement
to maintain posture
to stabilise joints
facial expression
heat generation
By-product of muscle activity
Crucial for maintenance of normal body temp.

Cell shape
Single cell, many nuclei
Elongated and cylindrical shape
Obvious striations (banded appearance)


Smooth
Location
Found in walls of hollow organs – stomach, bladder, respiratory passages

Contraction
Involuntary
Very slow and sustained speed (does not tire easily)

Functions:
Movement of substances throughout body
e.g. chyme, blood etc
Occurs along specific tracts

Cell shape:
Non-striated, Single cell,
Uninucleated
Spindle shaped
Arranged in sheets / layers

3 types of muscle and there Physiology
Muscle contraction
Steps
Nerve impulse reaches axon terminal of axon.

Neurotransmitters (acetylcholine) released from axon terminal

Acetylcholine crosses synapse and attach to receptors within muscle fibre

Calcium ions are released within the muscle fibre & attach to actin filament

Actin filament ‘turns’, exposing binding sites

Myosin heads attach to binding sites and ‘pull’ on actin filaments

Actin filaments slide toward each other, shortening the muscle fibre

Continues until nerve impulse stops

Aerobic: Long duration, low intensity
Anaerobic: Short duration, high intensity


Give me an example of each


Describe the fuel used for both aerobic and anaerobic exercise:

Aerobic: oxygen, fatty acids, glucose
Anaerobic: glucose only

What is the antagonist to the bicep?
What is the antagonist to the Hamstrings?

Location
Found only in the walls of the heart.

Contraction
Involuntary
Slow sustained speed.
Rhythmic contractions

Functions:
Contracts to move blood through the heart and blood
vessels

Cell shape
Branching chains or Y shaped
Striated
Uni-nucleated
Spiral/Fig 8 arrangement - needed for close coordination


Refers to the ability of the muscle
fibre to be stimulated

Refers to the ability of the muscle
fibre to shorten

Refers to the ability of the muscle
fibre to be stretched beyond its resting position

Refers to the ability of the muscle
fibre to recoil to its resting position
Full transcript